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Strong evidence implicates clathrin-coated vesicles and endosome-like vacuoles in the reformation of synaptic vesicles after exocytosis, and it is generally assumed that these vacuoles represent a traffic station downstream from clathrin-coated vesicles. To gain insight into the mechanisms of synaptic vesicle budding from endosome-like intermediates, lysed(More)
Antibodies directed against the lumenal domain of synaptotagmin I conjugated to CY3 (CY3-Syt1-Abs) and video microscopy were used to study the dynamics of synaptic vesicles in cultured hippocampal neurons. When applied to cultures after synapse formation, CY3-Syt1-Abs produced a strong labeling of presynaptic vesicle clusters which was markedly increased by(More)
The pathways of synaptic vesicle (SV) biogenesis and recycling are still poorly understood. We have studied the effects of Brefeldin A (BFA) on the distribution of several SV membrane proteins (synaptophysin, synaptotagmin, synaptobrevin, p29, SV2 and rab3A) and on endosomal markers to investigate the relationship between SVs and the membranes with which(More)
Amphiphysin, a major autoantigen in paraneoplastic Stiff-Man syndrome, is an SH3 domain-containing neuronal protein, concentrated in nerve terminals. Here, we demonstrate a specific, SH3 domain-mediated, interaction between amphiphysin and dynamin by gel overlay and affinity chromatography. In addition, we show that the two proteins are colocalized in nerve(More)
At least three high affinity Na+- and Cl--dependent gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters are known to exist in the rat and mouse brain. These transporters share 50-65% amino acid sequence identity with the kidney betaine transporter which also transports GABA but with lower affinity. The betaine transporter (BGT) is expressed on the basolateral(More)
The mechanisms involved in the targeting of proteins to different cytosolic compartments are still largely unknown. In this study we have investigated the targeting signal of the 65-kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), a major autoantigen in two autoimmune diseases: Stiff-Man syndrome and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. GAD65 is expressed(More)
Amphiphysin I is an SH3 domain-containing neuronal protein, enriched in axon terminals, which was reported to act as a physiological binding partner for dynamin I in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Rvs167 and Rvs161, the yeast homologs of amphiphysin I, have been implicated in endocytosis, actin function, and cell polarity. Now we have explored the(More)
In nerve terminals, synaptic vesicles form large clusters anchored to the presynaptic plasmalemma. Recently, FM1-43 photobleaching experiments carried out a frog motor end-plates demonstrated lack of lateral intermixing of synaptic vesicles within clusters, even during sustained nerve terminal stimulation (Henkel and Betz, 1995; Henkel et al., 1996b). We(More)
Abnormal metabolic processing of the beta/A4 amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Several aspects of normal APP processing have been elucidated, but the precise cellular trafficking of APP remains unclear. To investigate APP trafficking pathways further, we have examined the subcellular distribution(More)
Synaptic vesicle recycling is a specialized form of membrane recycling which takes place in all cells between early endosomes and the plasmalemma. Synaptic vesicles exocytosis is highly regulated and occurs only at presynaptic active zones. In contrast, exocytosis of endosome-derived vesicles of the housekeeping recycling pathway takes place constitutively(More)