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BACKGROUND Previous reports have suggested that certain probiotics given to mothers and children at risk of atopy halves the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) at 2 years of age. OBJECTIVES To examine if probiotics given to pregnant women in a nonselected population could prevent atopic sensitization or allergic diseases during the child's first 2 years.(More)
BACKGROUND There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a primary prevention intervention program on risk behavior for allergic diseases among children up to 2 years of age. The setting was in ordinary pre- and postnatal primary health care in Trondheim, Norway. METHODS The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim, Norway (PACT) study invited all(More)
Bifidobacteria are a major microbial component of infant gut microbiota, which is believed to promote health benefits for the host and stimulate maturation of the immune system. Despite their perceived importance, very little is known about the natural development of and possible correlations between bifidobacteria in human populations. To address this(More)
BACKGROUND Severe eczema in young children is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis. In the general population, however, most cases of eczema are mild to moderate. In an unselected cohort, we studied the risk of current asthma and the co-existence of allergy-related diseases at 6 years of age among children with and(More)
Despite that Escherichia coli is one of the most important bacteria in early infant colonization and immune modulation, we have limited knowledge about diversity, transmission and persistence within human populations for this bacterium. Here we have utilized a novel, growth-independent, direct typing approach to describe E. coli mother-to-child transmission(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal microbiota undergoes substantial development during the first 2 years of life, important for intestinal immunologic development and maturation influencing systemic immune responses. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate, using a prospective study design, whether allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) and atopic eczema are associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Sensitization toward allergens, as determined by skin prick test (SPT) or specific IgE (sIgE), is a predictor for the later presence of allergy-related disease (atopic eczema, allergic rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma). However, it is not known whether SPT or sIgE should be the preferred test. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive(More)
Atopic dermatitis is often the first and most prevalent manifestation of atopic disease in preschool children. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis in 2-year-old children. Questionnaire data from a total population of 4784 two-year olds and data from a clinical investigation of a sub-sample(More)
Allergic disorders represent a major health problem in most developed countries, but few population-based studies have focused on these disorders in early childhood. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence, gender differences and distribution of allergy related disorders and their association to sensitization among unselected(More)