Ola Mahmoud

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Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the(More)
Risk-only investment strategies have been growing in popularity as traditional investment strategies have fallen short of return targets over the last decade. However, risk-based investors should be aware of four things. First, theoretical considerations and empirical studies show that apparently distinct risk-based investment strategies are manifestations(More)
BACKGROUND The Fas receptor/ligand system including soluble forms is the most important apoptotic initiator in the liver. Dysregulation of this pathway may contribute to abnormal cell proliferation and cell death and is regarded as one of the mechanisms preventing the immune system from rejecting the tumor cells. OBJECTIVES To analyze the role of Fas(More)
Maximum drawdown, the largest cumulative loss from peak to trough, is one of the most widely used indicators of risk in the fund management industry, but one of the least developed in the context of measures of risk. We formalize drawdown risk as Conditional Expected Drawdown (CED), which is the tail mean of maximum drawdown distributions. We show that CED(More)
The unreliable network layer in the Internet has been a cause of concern for network managers and users. The unreliability manifests itself in terms of lost or delayed packets due to congestion or failure in the network. One of the causes of congestion is the inherent burstiness of network traffic. Traffic includes unpredictable large file or web page(More)
The aim of the study is to characterize the phenotypes of CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells within the liver granulomas and association with both Foxp-3 gene expression and splenic cytokines. Naïve C57BL/6 mice were intravenously injected with multiple doses of the soluble egg antigen (SEA) 7 days before cercarial infection. The immunized and infected(More)
Diversification represents the idea of choosing variety over uniformity. Within the theory of choice, desirability of diversification is axiomatized as preference for a convex combination of choices that are equivalently ranked. This corresponds to the notion of risk aversion when one assumes the von-Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility model, but the(More)
INTRODUCTION Altered neutrophil apoptosis might be responsible for recurrent bacterial infections encountered in hemodialysis (HD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This work was designed to assess the neutrophil apoptotic activity and the impact of implementation of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as a survival factor,(More)