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The purpose of this work is to complete the algebraic foundations of second-order languages from the viewpoint of categorical algebra as developed by Lawvere. To this end, this paper introduces the notion of second-order algebraic theory and develops its basic theory. A crucial role in the definition is played by the second-order theory of equality M,… (More)

- Ola Mahmoud
- ArXiv
- 2011

Fiore and Hur [10] recently introduced a conservative extension of universal algebra and equational logic from first to second order. Second-order universal algebra and second-order equational logic respectively provide a model theory and a formal deductive system for languages with variable binding and parameterised metavariables. This work completes the… (More)

- Lisa R Goldberg, Ola Mahmoud, Bob Anderson, Stephen Bianchi, Michael Hayes
- 2013

Risk-only investment strategies have been growing in popularity as traditional investment strategies have fallen short of return targets over the last decade. However, risk-based investors should be aware of four things. First, theoretical considerations and empirical studies show that apparently distinct risk-based investment strategies are manifestations… (More)

Maximum drawdown, the largest cumulative loss from peak to trough, is one of the most widely used indicators of risk in the fund management industry, but one of the least developed in the context of measures of risk. We formalize drawdown risk as Conditional Expected Drawdown (CED), which is the tail mean of maximum drawdown distributions. We show that CED… (More)

- Olfat Hammam, Ola Mahmoud, Manal Zahran, Sohair Aly, Karim Hosny, Amira Helmy +1 other
- Hepatitis monthly
- 2012

BACKGROUND
The Fas receptor/ligand system including soluble forms is the most important apoptotic initiator in the liver. Dysregulation of this pathway may contribute to abnormal cell proliferation and cell death and is regarded as one of the mechanisms preventing the immune system from rejecting the tumor cells.
OBJECTIVES
To analyze the role of Fas… (More)

- Eman El-Ahwany, Ibrahim Rabia Bauiomy, Faten Nagy, Rabab Zalat, Ola Mahmoud, Suher Zada
- The Korean journal of parasitology
- 2012

The aim of the study is to characterize the phenotypes of CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells within the liver granulomas and association with both Foxp-3 gene expression and splenic cytokines. Naïve C57BL/6 mice were intravenously injected with multiple doses of the soluble egg antigen (SEA) 7 days before cercarial infection. The immunized and infected… (More)

- Lisa R Goldberg, Bob Anderson, Jeff Bohn, Alan Cummings, Nick Gunther, Ola Mahmoud +7 others
- 2016

Predictions go back at least as far as the Oracle of Delphi and the astrologers of the Chinese Han Dynasty. Arguably, they are as old as the human race. However, our recently acquired capability to collect, store and analyze data has emphasized statistics and elevated prediction to a science that pervades virtually everything we do. Despite recent advances,… (More)

- Enrico G De Giorgi, Ola Mahmoud
- 2015

Diversification represents the idea of choosing variety over uniformity. Within the theory of choice, desirability of diversification is axiomatized as preference for a convex combination of choices that are equivalently ranked. This corresponds to the notion of risk aversion when one assumes the von-Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility model, but the… (More)

- Ola Mahmoud
- 2015

Multi-period measures of risk account for the path that the value of an investment portfolio takes. In the context of probabilistic risk measures, the focus has traditionally been on the magnitude of investment loss and not on the dimension associated with the passage of time. In this paper, the concept of temporal path-dependent risk measure is… (More)