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Because of the difficulty of reoperative parathyroid surgery, preoperative imaging studies have been increasingly adopted. We report the use of consistently applied localization diagnosis to yield high success rates in parathyroid reoperations. Parathyroid reoperation was performed after previous parathyroid surgery in 144 patients with nonmalignant(More)
The optimal treatment of Graves´ disease (GD) is still controversial. Surgery is one treatment option along with radioactive iodine (RAI) and antithyroid medication. In this evidence-based review, we examine four issues: (1) Is surgery better than RAI or long-term antithyroid medication? (2) What is the recommended surgical approach? (3) How does the(More)
Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are uncommon, with an annual incidence of about 1 per 100,000 individuals. The primary tumor (PT) is generally small, but nevertheless the majority of patients have mesenteric lymph node metastases and liver metastases at diagnosis. Our aim was to identify prognostic factors for survival and to evaluate(More)
Midgut carcinoids developing in the small intestine represent the most common cause of the carcinoid syndrome, with severe symptoms of flush, diarrhoea, and fibrotic valvular heart disease. The tumours may be histologically identified with specific chromogranin A or synaptophysine immunostainings, and by serotonin reactivity, which supports a midgut origin.(More)
Pancreatic endocrine tumors occur sporadically and as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndromes. The MEN1 locus on 11q13 and a candidate tumor suppressor locus on 3p are known to be hemi- or homozygously mutated in a subset of these tumors. Chromosome arm 18q harbors the SMAD4/DPC4 tumor suppressor gene(More)
Classical midgut carcinoids are rare intestinal neuroendocrine tumors that often present with metastases at diagnosis. In contrast to foregut carcinoids, midgut carcinoids are not related to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome, and the mechanisms involved in their tumorigenesis are unknown. Eight classical midgut carcinoids were analyzed by(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) occur sporadically, in association with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and the von Hippel-Lindau syndromes. CDK4 is central to the cell cycle control in pancreatic beta cells, and we have assessed whether CDK4 expression is deregulated in 18 human sporadic or familial PETs. METHODS(More)
Pancreaticoduodenal tumors develop in a majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) and have a pronounced effect on life expectancy as the principal cause of disease related death. Previous discussion of therapy has focused mainly on syndromes of hormone excess and especially the management of MEN 1 associated Zollinger-Ellison(More)
CONTEXT Mild primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common disease especially in middle-aged and elderly women. The diagnosis is frequently made incidentally and treatment strategies are widely discussed. OBJECTIVE To study the effect of parathyroidectomy (PTX) compared with observation (OBS) on biochemistry, safety, bone mineral density (BMD), and new(More)
Midgut carcinoids originating in the small intestine are the most common cause of the carcinoid syndrome. These tumours typically progress slowly and have an extended disease course, and although they often present with metastases at diagnosis, surgical treatment has become increasingly important for their management. Surgery should include efforts to(More)