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We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry,(More)
Based on the mechanism for chromophore formation in red fluorescent proteins, we developed three mCherry-derived monomeric variants, called fluorescent timers (FTs), that change their fluorescence from the blue to red over time. These variants exhibit distinctive fast, medium and slow blue-to-red chromophore maturation rates that depend on the temperature.(More)
We report a photoswitchable monomeric Orange (PSmOrange) protein that is initially orange (excitation, 548 nm; emission, 565 nm) but becomes far-red (excitation, 636 nm; emission, 662 nm) after irradiation with blue-green light. Compared to its parental orange proteins, PSmOrange has greater brightness, faster maturation, higher photoconversion contrast and(More)
Commonly used monomeric blue fluorescent proteins suffer from moderate brightness. The brightest of them, mTagBFP, has a notably low chemical stability over time. Prolonged incubation of mTagBFP leads to its transition from a blue fluorescent state with absorbance at 401 nm to a non-fluorescent state with absorbance at 330 nm. Here, we have determined the(More)
Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is implicated in oncogenesis, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Mutations within the ING1 gene and altered expression levels of ING1 are found in multiple human cancers. Here, we show that both DNA repair and apoptotic activities of ING1 require the interaction of the C-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) finger with histone H3(More)
Two-photon microscopy has advanced fluorescence imaging of cellular processes in living animals. Fluorescent proteins in the blue-green wavelength range are widely used in two-photon microscopy; however, the use of red fluorescent proteins is limited by the low power output of Ti-Sapphire lasers above 1,000 nm. To overcome this limitation we have developed(More)
We determined the 2.2 A crystal structures of the red fluorescent protein TagRFP and its derivative, the blue fluorescent protein mTagBFP. The crystallographic analysis is consistent with a model in which TagRFP has the trans coplanar anionic chromophore with the conjugated pi-electron system, similar to that of DsRed-like chromophores. Refined conformation(More)
Understanding the chromophore maturation process in fluorescent proteins is important for the design of proteins with improved properties. Here, we present the results of electronic structure calculations identifying the nature of a blue intermediate, a key species in the process of the red chromophore formation in DsRed, TagRFP, fluorescent timers, and(More)
Epsin and AP180 are essential components of the endocytotic machinery, which controls internalization of protein receptors and other macromolecules at the cell surface. Epsin and AP180 are recruited to the plasma membrane by their structurally and functionally related N-terminal ENTH and ANTH domains that specifically recognize PtdIns(4,5)P2. Here, we show(More)
Fluorescent protein (FP) technologies suitable for use within the eukaryotic secretory pathway are essential for live cell and protein dynamic studies. Localization of FPs within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen has potentially significant consequences for FP function. All FPs are resident cytoplasmic proteins and have rarely been evolved for the(More)