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We used a red chromophore formation pathway, in which the anionic red chromophore is formed from the neutral blue intermediate, to suggest a rational design strategy to develop blue fluorescent proteins with a tyrosine-based chromophore. The strategy was applied to red fluorescent proteins of the different genetic backgrounds, such as TagRFP, mCherry,(More)
We report a photoswitchable monomeric Orange (PSmOrange) protein that is initially orange (excitation, 548 nm; emission, 565 nm) but becomes far-red (excitation, 636 nm; emission, 662 nm) after irradiation with blue-green light. Compared to its parental orange proteins, PSmOrange has greater brightness, faster maturation, higher photoconversion contrast and(More)
Based on the mechanism for chromophore formation in red fluorescent proteins, we developed three mCherry-derived monomeric variants, called fluorescent timers (FTs), that change their fluorescence from the blue to red over time. These variants exhibit distinctive fast, medium and slow blue-to-red chromophore maturation rates that depend on the temperature.(More)
Commonly used monomeric blue fluorescent proteins suffer from moderate brightness. The brightest of them, mTagBFP, has a notably low chemical stability over time. Prolonged incubation of mTagBFP leads to its transition from a blue fluorescent state with absorbance at 401 nm to a non-fluorescent state with absorbance at 330 nm. Here, we have determined the(More)
Understanding the chromophore maturation process in fluorescent proteins is important for the design of proteins with improved properties. Here, we present the results of electronic structure calculations identifying the nature of a blue intermediate, a key species in the process of the red chromophore formation in DsRed, TagRFP, fluorescent timers, and(More)
A structural analysis of the recently developed orange fluorescent proteins with novel phenotypes, LSSmOrange (λex/λem at 437/572 nm), PSmOrange (λex/λem at 548/565 nm and for photoconverted form at 636/662 nm) and PSmOrange2 (λex/λem at 546/561 nm and for photoconverted form at 619/651 nm), is presented. The obtained crystallographic structures provide an(More)
Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) are mainly represented by two- or one-fluorophore-based sensors. One type of two-fluorophore-based sensor, carrying Opsanus troponin C (TnC) as the Ca(2+)-binding moiety, has two binding sites for calcium ions, providing a linear response to calcium ions. One-fluorophore-based sensors have four Ca(2+)-binding(More)
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