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Incremental spoken dialogue systems, which process user input as it unfolds, pose additional engineering challenges compared to more standard non-incremental systems: Their processing components must be able to accept partial, and possibly subsequently revised input, and must produce output that is at the same time as accurate as possible and delivered with(More)
When dialogue systems, through the use of incremental processing, are not bounded anymore by strict, non-overlapping turn-taking, a whole range of additional interactional devices becomes available. We explore the use of one such device, trial intonation. We elaborate our approach to dialogue management in incremental systems, based on the(More)
We describe work done at three sites on designing conversational agents capable of incremental processing. We focus on the 'middleware' layer in these systems, which takes care of passing around and maintaining incremental information between the modules of such agents. All implementations are based on the abstract model of incremental dialogue processing(More)
We present a model of semantic processing of spoken language that (a) is robust against ill-formed input, such as can be expected from automatic speech recognisers, (b) respects both syntactic and pragmatic constraints in the computation of most likely interpretations, (c) uses a principled, expressive semantic representation formalism (RMRS) with a(More)
Incremental processing offers the potential for dialogue systems to produce more natural , spontaneous conversational behaviour. This processing strategy comes at a price, though, which is that processing results may have to be revised when more input becomes available. We distinguish between two possible consequences of such revisions: a) If no observable(More)
The potential of using ASR n-best lists for dialogue systems has often been recognised (if less often realised): it is often the case that even when the top-ranked hypothesis is erroneous, a better one can be found at a lower rank. In this paper, we describe metrics for evaluating whether the same potential carries over to incremental dialogue systems,(More)
We present INPROTK, a toolkit for building incremental spoken dialogue systems. Incremental spoken dialogue systems (systems that may react while the user's utterance is ongoing) are a fairly recent research topic and allow for exciting new features. Even though toolkits exist that help in building conventional dialogue systems, INPROTK offers both a tested(More)
β-keto esters are used as precursors for the synthesis of β-amino acids, which are building blocks for some classes of pharmaceuticals. Here we describe the comparison of screening procedures for hydrolases to be used for the hydrolysis of β-keto esters, the first step in the preparation of β-amino acids. Two of the tested high throughput screening (HTS)(More)
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