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We introduce a practically important and theoretically challenging problem: finding the minimum cost path for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a network with refueling and battery switching stations, considering electricity and gasoline as sources of energy with different cost structures and limitations. We show that this problem is NP-complete(More)
The flow refueling location problem (FRLP) locates p stations in order to maximize the flow volume that can be accommodated in a road network respecting the range limitations of the vehicles. This paper introduces the charging station location problem with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (CSLP-PHEV) as a generalization of the FRLP. We consider not only the(More)
To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of chronic ethanol consumption on brain cerebral synaptosomes and preventive role of betaine as a methyl donor andS-adenosylmethionine precursor, 24 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, ethanol (8 g/kg/day) and ethanol plus betaine(0.5% w/v) group. Animals were fed 60 ml/diet per day for two months,(More)
OBJECTIVE Adenosine and nitric oxide (NO) are known as vasodilatators. We investigated adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity and NO concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS Forty patients with SAH and 10 controls were included in the study. Nitrate level and ADA activity were measured in CSF. SAH(More)
In this study, our aim was to investigate whether cellular alterations occurred in liver and lung tissue in presence of chronic alcohol ingestion and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia related to oxidative stress and in situ cell death. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups: the sham group fed by normal solid diet, two control groups; one fed by(More)
Let M be a weak Nobusawa Γ-ring and γ be a nonzero element of Γ. In this paper, we nd a relation between Γ-rings and rings, and give some commutativity conditions on Γ-rings by using this relation. Also, we prove that any Γ-ring M in the sense of Nobusawa with a nonzero element γ in the center of M -ring Γ is γ-prime if and only if M is Γ-prime. As a(More)
We hypothesized that dexanabinol can prevent neuronal death by protecting neuronal lysosomes from nitric oxide (NO)-mediated toxicity, and in turn, by suppressing the release of cathepsins during cerebral ischemia. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in two sets of animals by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The first set was used to monitor NO(More)
With the introduction of alternative fuel vehicles into the transportation system, the refueling station location research has been touted in the literature. The flow refueling location problem (FRLP) locates p stations in order to maximize the flow volume that can be accommodated in a road network respecting the range limitations of the vehicles. This(More)
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