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Ca(2+) binding to synaptotagmin 1 triggers fast exocytosis of synaptic vesicles that have been primed for release by SNARE-complex assembly. Besides synaptotagmin 1, fast Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis requires complexins. Synaptotagmin 1 and complexins both bind to assembled SNARE complexes, but it is unclear how their functions are coupled. Here we propose(More)
Synaptotagmin 1 probably functions as a Ca2+ sensor in neurotransmitter release via its two C2-domains, but no common Ca2+-dependent activity that could underlie a cooperative action between them has been described. The NMR structure of the C2B-domain now reveals a beta sandwich that exhibits striking similarities and differences with the C2A-domain.(More)
Deletion of synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein, the major synaptic vesicle soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (R-SNARE), severely decreases but does not abolish spontaneous and evoked synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We now show that the closely related R-SNARE protein cellubrevin rescues synaptic transmission(More)
Sr(2+) triggers neurotransmitter release similar to Ca(2+), but less efficiently. We now show that in synaptotagmin 1 knockout mice, the fast component of both Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-induced release is selectively impaired, suggesting that both cations partly act by binding to synaptotagmin 1. Both the C(2)A and the C(2)B domain of synaptotagmin 1 bind Ca(2+)(More)
Spontaneous 'mini' release occurs at all synapses, but its nature remains enigmatic. We found that >95% of spontaneous release in murine cortical neurons was induced by Ca2+-binding to synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1), the Ca2+ sensor for fast synchronous neurotransmitter release. Thus, spontaneous and evoked release used the same Ca2+-dependent release mechanism. As(More)
Central synapses exhibit spontaneous neurotransmitter release that is selectively regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). We now show that synaptic vesicles contain synaptotagmin-12, a synaptotagmin isoform that differs from classical synaptotagmins in that it does not bind Ca(2+). In synaptic vesicles, synaptotagmin-12 forms a complex with(More)
Synaptotagmins constitute a large family of membrane proteins implicated in Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. Structurally similar synaptotagmins are differentially localized either to secretory vesicles or to plasma membranes, suggesting distinct functions. Using measurements of the Ca(2+) affinities of synaptotagmin C2-domains in a complex with phospholipids,(More)
Neurotransmitter release is triggered by cooperative Ca2+-binding to the Ca2+-sensor protein synaptotagmin-1. Synaptotagmin-1 contains two C2 domains, referred to as the C2A and C2B domains, that bind Ca2+ with similar properties and affinities. However, Ca2+ binding to the C2A domain is not required for release, whereas Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is(More)
Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding to the C2A and C2B domains of synaptotagmin 1 is thought to trigger fast neurotransmitter release, but only Ca2+ binding to the C2B domain is essential for release. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we have compared the role of basic residues in Ca2+/phospholipid binding and in release. Mutations in a polybasic(More)
Munc13 is a multidomain protein present in presynaptic active zones that mediates the priming and plasticity of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we use biophysical, biochemical and electrophysiological approaches to show that the central C2B domain of Munc13 functions as a Ca2+ regulator of short-term synaptic(More)