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BACKGROUND β-Catenin, the transducer of Wnt signaling, is critical for the development and growth of hair follicles. In the absence of Wnt signals, cytoplasmic β-catenin is phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 and then degraded. Therefore, inhibition of GSK-3 may enhance hair growth via β-catenin stabilization. Valproic acid is an(More)
Understanding molecular mechanisms for regeneration of hair follicles provides new opportunities for developing treatments for hair loss and other skin disorders. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor 9 (Fgf9), initially secreted by γδ T cells, modulates hair follicle regeneration after wounding the skin of adult mice. Reducing Fgf9 expression(More)
This paper presents a design methodology emphasizing early and quick timing closure for high frequency microprocessor designs. This methodology was used to design a Gigahertz class PowerPC microprocessor with 19 million transistors. Characteristics of “Timing Closure by Design are 1) logic partitioned on timing boundaries, 2) predictable control(More)
It is widely believed that the slowest dispersal strategy is selected in the evolutional if the environment is temporally invariant but spatially heterogeneous. Authors claim in this paper that this belief is true only if random dispersals with constant motility are considered. However, if a dispersal strategy with fitness property is included, the size of(More)
Ginsenoside F1 (GF1) is a metabolite of ginsenoside Rg1. Although GF1 has several benefits for skin physiology, the effect of GF1 on skin pigmentation has not been reported. We found that a cream containing 0.1% GF1 showed a significant whitening effect on artificially tanned human skin after 8 weeks of application. However, GF1 did not inhibit mRNA(More)
Valproic acid (VPA), a widely used anticonvulsant, inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is associated with hair growth cycle and anagen induction. To assess the efficacy of topical VPA for treating androgenetic alopecia (AGA), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Male(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is not only a cell growth stimulant but also has a catagen-inducing effect. Because chemotherapeutic agents primarily damage anagen hair follicles, it would be important to investigate whether catagen inducers have beneficial effects in chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA). We pretreated hair follicles with topical EGF-liposomal(More)
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a highly distressing event for cancer patients, and hence, we here aimed to assess the efficacy of various interventions in the prevention of CIA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, from June 20, 2013 through August 31, 2013. Two of the authors independently reviewed and selected clinical trials that(More)
The aim of our study was to describe the radiologic findings of extensive acute lung injury associated with limited thoracic irradiation. Limited thoracic irradiation occasionally results in acute lung injury. In this condition, chest radiograph shows diffuse ground-glass appearance in both lungs and thin-section CT scans show diffuse bilateral ground-glass(More)