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Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120), the envelope protein used by the virus to gain access into immune cells, induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats. To examine the role of proinflammatory cytokines in mediating these effects, we measured the effects of gp120 on brain proinflammatory cytokine expression and(More)
Antidepressants produce various immunomodulatory effects, as well as an attenuation of the behavioral responses to immune challenges, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To explore further the effects of antidepressants on neuroimmune interactions, rats were treated daily with either fluoxetine (Prozac) or saline for 5 weeks, and various behavioral,(More)
Various medical conditions that involve activation of the immune system are associated with psychological and neuroendocrine changes that resemble the characteristics of depression. In this review we present our recent studies, designed to investigate the relationship between the behavioral effects of immune activation and depressive symptomatology. In the(More)
HIV infection is associated with profound neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine impairments. Previous studies demonstrated that HIV causes neuropathological alterations indirectly, via shedding of glycoprotein 120 (gp120) within the brain. To extend these findings, we examined the neurobehavioral and neuroendocrine effects of central administration of gp120,(More)
Intracerebral administration of Mycoplasma fermentans (MF), a small microorganism that has been found in the brain of some AIDS patients, induces behavioral and neuroendocrine alterations in rats. To examine the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in mediating these effects we measured MF-induced expression of TNFalpha(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis may present with fever and behavioral changes, to the extent of a psychotic state and psychomotor agitation. We developed a clinically relevant experimental model of HSV-1 encephalitis and investigated host brain responses associated with its clinical signs and whether these responses depend on the presence(More)
Endogenous release or exogenous administration of the cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1) produces several behavioral alterations, including suppression of locomotion and exploration. Because there are bidirectional interactions between IL-1 and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we investigated possible differences between males and females in various(More)
Mycoplasmas are small microorganisms, which cause various diseases in animals and in humans, activate the immune system, and induce the release of various cytokines. Some of the effects of mycoplasmas are mediated by the CNS. Moreover, Mycoplasma fermentans (MF) has recently been found in the brain, as well as other tissues of some AIDS patients, who(More)
We examined whether immunization with the nonpathogenic strain R-15 of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) may prevent the clinical and neuroendocrine changes induced by the pathogenic HSV-1 strain Syn17+. Inoculation of strain Syn17+ to control rats induced fever, marked motor hyperactivity and aggressive behavior, and increased serum ACTH, corticosterone (CS)(More)
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