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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently come to be viewed as critical players that modulate a number of cellular features in various biological systems including the mature CNS by exerting regulatory control over the stability and translation of mRNAs. Despite considerable evidence for the regulatory functions of miRNAs, the identities of the miRNA species that(More)
Despite the pivotal functions of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) for neural circuit development and synaptic plasticity, the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamics of NMDAR trafficking are poorly understood. The cell adhesion molecule neuroligin-1 (NL1) modifies NMDAR-dependent synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether NL1(More)
Of the numerous events that occur in daily life, we readily remember salient information, but do not retain most less-salient events for a prolonged period. Although some of the episodes contain putatively emotional aspects, the information with lower saliency is rarely stored in neural circuits via an unknown mechanism. We provided substantial evidence(More)
The amygdala is important for emotional memory, including learned fear. A number of studies for amygdala neural circuits that underlie fear conditioning have elucidated specific cellular and molecular mechanisms of emotional memory. Recent technical advances such as optogenetic approaches have not only confirmed the importance of excitatory circuits in fear(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the combined extract of Rhei rhizoma and Coptidis rhizoma (RC-mix) in experimental model of acute reflux esophagitis. The antioxidant activity was assessed by in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(More)
MicroRNAs have emerged as key factors in development, neurogenesis and synaptic functions in the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated a pathophysiological significance of microRNA-188-5p (miR-188-5p) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We found that oligomeric Aβ1-42 treatment diminished miR-188-5p expression in primary hippocampal neuron(More)
BACKGROUND Water extract from the root of Allium hookeri (AH) shows anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and free radical scavenging effects. In this study, the ameliorating effects of AH on oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response and β-cell damage in the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were investigated. METHODS AH (100(More)
Activity-guided isolation of a methanolic extract of Galla Rhois using pancreatic lipase and 3T3-L1 adipocytes led to the isolation of seven phenolic compounds: protoaphin-fb (1), 2-O-digalloyl-1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (2), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (3), 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (4), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxy-phenol(More)
BACKGROUND Rhei Rhizoma has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity against experimental reflux-induced esophagitis (RE) in SD rats. METHODS Rhei Rhizoma was administered at 125 or 250 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days prior to(More)
Persicarin is one of the major components of the Oenanthe javanica (water dropwort). The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of persicarin in the hepatic tissue of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (120 mg/kg body weight) and then oral administration of(More)