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The neuron-astrocyte synaptic complex is a fundamental operational unit of the nervous system. Astroglia regulate synaptic glutamate, via neurotransmitter transport by GLT1/EAAT2. Astroglial mechanisms underlying this essential neuron-glial communication are not known. We now show that presynaptic terminals regulate astroglial synaptic functions,(More)
Astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2/GLT1 prevents glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. Expression of EAAT2/GLT1 is dynamically regulated by neurons. The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves astroglial dysfunction, including dramatic loss of EAAT2/GLT1. DNA methylation of gene promoters represents one of(More)
Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are suggested to play a role in several physiological processes including feeding, reward, neuroendocrine modulation, and the stress response. Although some studies implicate the modulation of CART peptide expression by glucocorticoids, direct evidence relating CART to the stress response is(More)
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that binds to the kainate receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR). Each receptor was first characterized and cloned in the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate is also present in the periphery, and glutamate(More)
p97/VCP is a hexameric AAA type ATPase that functions in a variety of cellular processes such as endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD), organelle biogenesis, autophagy and cell-cycle regulation. Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of the bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) is an autosomal dominant disorder which has(More)
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that these nuclei regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system activity, and feeding behavior. Our previous studies(More)
Our previous studies showed the modulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) positive neurons and CART mRNA by adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement in hypothalamic nuclei of male rat brain. More recently, we have shown by CART immunohistochemistry that restraint and forced swim (FS) stress have sexually dimorphic and regionally(More)
Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts its effect partially through causing dopamine release, thereby increasing intrasynaptic dopamine levels in the brain reward systems. Dopaine D1 receptor (DRD1) mRNAs and receptors are localized in reward-related brain regions, which receive cholinergic input. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether(More)
In this work, a novel electrochemical microRNA (miRNA) detection method based on enzyme amplified biosensing of mir21 from cell lysate of total RNA was demonstrated. The proposed enzymatic detection method was detailed and compared with the conventional guanine oxidation based assay in terms of detection limit and specificity. For the detection of mir21,(More)
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and their receptors have been shown to play important roles in natural and drug-induced reward and reinforcement. Reward process may involve the regulation of POMC gene expression and the gene expression of POMC-derived peptide receptors. The present study investigated the alterations observed in the transcript(More)