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The neuron-astrocyte synaptic complex is a fundamental operational unit of the nervous system. Astroglia regulate synaptic glutamate, via neurotransmitter transport by GLT1/EAAT2. Astroglial mechanisms underlying this essential neuron-glial communication are not known. We now show that presynaptic terminals regulate astroglial synaptic functions,(More)
Astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2/GLT1 prevents glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. Expression of EAAT2/GLT1 is dynamically regulated by neurons. The pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves astroglial dysfunction, including dramatic loss of EAAT2/GLT1. DNA methylation of gene promoters represents one of(More)
Our previous studies showed the modulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) positive neurons and CART mRNA by adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement in hypothalamic nuclei of male rat brain. More recently, we have shown by CART immunohistochemistry that restraint and forced swim (FS) stress have sexually dimorphic and regionally(More)
Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are suggested to play a role in several physiological processes including feeding, reward, neuroendocrine modulation, and the stress response. Although some studies implicate the modulation of CART peptide expression by glucocorticoids, direct evidence relating CART to the stress response is(More)
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that these nuclei regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system activity, and feeding behavior. Our previous studies(More)
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter that binds to the kainate receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR). Each receptor was first characterized and cloned in the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate is also present in the periphery, and glutamate(More)
NO (nitric oxide) produced in limbic brain regions has important roles in the regulation of autonomic nervous system and HPA axis activity, anxiety, fear learning, long-term memory formation, and depression. NO is synthesized from l-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), one of the three(More)
Nicotine is a highly addictive drug and exerts its effect partially through causing dopamine release, thereby increasing intrasynaptic dopamine levels in the brain reward systems. Dopaine D1 receptor (DRD1) mRNAs and receptors are localized in reward-related brain regions, which receive cholinergic input. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether(More)
CART mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the anatomical structures composing the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympatho-adrenal system. Anatomical and functional studies suggest that CART peptides may have a role in the regulation of the neuroendocrine and autonomic responses during stress. Our previous study showed that CART peptides(More)
Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are intensely expressed in the brain regions comprising mesocorticolimbic system. Studies suggest that CART peptides may have a role in the regulation of reward circuitry. The present study aimed to examine the effect of nicotine on CART expression in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three(More)