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A large percentage of computed results have fewer significant bits compared to the full width of a register. We exploit this fact to pack multiple results into a single physical register to reduce the pressure on the register file in a superscalar processor. Two schemes for dynamically packing multiple "narrow-width" results into partitions within a single(More)
Modern superscalar microprocessors need sizable register files to support large number of in-flight instructions for exploiting ILP. An alternative to building large register files is to use smaller number of registers, but manage them more effectively. More efficient management of registers can also result in higher performance if the reduction of the(More)
Soft errors are an important challenge in contemporary microprocessors. Particle hits on the components of a processor are expected to create an increasing number of transient errors with each new microprocessor generation. In this paper we propose simple mechanisms that effectively reduce the vulnerability to soft errors In a processor. Our designs are(More)
The out-of-order issue queue (IQ), used in modern superscalar processors is a considerable source of energy dissipation. We consider design alternatives that result in significant reductions in the power dissipation of the IQ (by as much as 75%) through the use of comparators that dissipate energy mainly on a tag match, 0-B encoding of operands to imply the(More)
Modern superscalar microprocessors need sizable register files to support a large number of in-flight instructions for exploiting instruction level parallelism (ILP). An alternative to building large register files is to use a smaller number of registers, but manage them more effectively. More efficient management of registers can also result in higher(More)
Register pressure in modern superscalar processors can be reduced by releasing registers early and by copying their contents to cheap back-up storage. This article quantifies the potential benefits of register occupancy reduction and shows that existing hardware-based schemes typically achieve only a small fraction of this potential. This is because they(More)
A mechanism for reducing the power requirements in processors that use a separate (architectural) register file (ARF) for holding committed values is proposed in this paper. We exploit the notion of short-lived operands—values that target architectural registers that are renamed by the time the instruction producing the value reaches the writeback stage.(More)
Scaling supply voltage to near-threshold is a very effective approach in reducing the energy consumption of computer systems. However, executing below the safe operation margin of supply voltage introduces high number of persistent failures, especially in memory structures. Thus, it is essential to provide reliability schemes to tolerate these persistent(More)
The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of TDZ and BAP on shoot proliferation and to develop a satisfactory rooting procedure for in vitro propagation of caper (Capparis spinosa L). TDZ was found to be more effective than BAP in shoot production. The highest shoot number per explant (45.7) was achieved on the media that contained 4.54 microM(More)