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BACKGROUND Increasing scientific evidence suggests that exposure to phthalates during pregnancy may be associated with an elevated risk of adverse reproductive outcomes such as preterm birth. Maternal endocrine disruption across pregnancy may be one pathway mediating some of these relationships. We investigated whether urinary phthalate metabolites were(More)
Physiological, hormonal, and genetic differences between males and females affect the prevalence, incidence, and severity of diseases and responses to therapy. Understanding these differences is important for designing safe and effective treatments. This paper summarizes sex differences that impact drug disposition and includes a general comparison of(More)
The developing central nervous system (CNS) is more vulnerable to injury than the adult one. Although a great deal of research has been devoted to subtle effects of developmental exposure, such as neurobehavioral changes, this review instead focuses on a number of chemicals that have been shown, in several experimental models as well as humans, to cause(More)
BACKGROUND New high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are among the most successful approaches to improve specificity problems inherent in many immunoassays. CONTENT We emphasize problems with immunoassays for the measurement of steroids and review the emerging role of LC-MS/MS in the measurement of clinically(More)
CONTEXT Cigarette tobacco smoke is a potent environmental contaminant known to adversely affect health including fertility and pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between second-hand cigarette tobacco-smoke exposure, or active smoking and serum concentrations of steroid hormones using tandem mass spectrometry. DESIGN Healthy women (18-45 y)(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace nutrient that is potentially toxic at high levels of exposure. As a constituent of numerous enzymes and a cofactor, manganese plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes in mammals. The manganese-containing enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), is the principal antioxidant enzyme which(More)
PURPOSE In children, data on the combined impact of age, genotype, and disease severity on tacrolimus (TAC) disposition are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these covariates on tacrolimus dose requirements in the immediate post-transplant period in pediatric kidney and liver recipients. METHODS Data were retrospectively(More)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health concern for men in the USA. Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with the pathogenesis of various cancers, including PCa. Circulatory forms of miRNAs have been detected in serum and hold promise as minimally invasive cancer biomarkers. This study aimed to identify potential circulatory miRNAs(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate measurement of free thyroid hormones is important for managing thyroid disorders. Ultrafiltration liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can reliably measure the concentrations of small molecules, including thyroid hormones. Our study was designed to compare free thyroid hormone measurements performed with immunoassay(More)
The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for(More)