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The developing central nervous system (CNS) is more vulnerable to injury than the adult one. Although a great deal of research has been devoted to subtle effects of developmental exposure, such as neurobehavioral changes, this review instead focuses on a number of chemicals that have been shown, in several experimental models as well as humans, to cause(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing scientific evidence suggests that exposure to phthalates during pregnancy may be associated with an elevated risk of adverse reproductive outcomes such as preterm birth. Maternal endocrine disruption across pregnancy may be one pathway mediating some of these relationships. We investigated whether urinary phthalate metabolites were(More)
Physiological, hormonal, and genetic differences between males and females affect the prevalence, incidence, and severity of diseases and responses to therapy. Understanding these differences is important for designing safe and effective treatments. This paper summarizes sex differences that impact drug disposition and includes a general comparison of(More)
CONTEXT Cigarette tobacco smoke is a potent environmental contaminant known to adversely affect health including fertility and pregnancy. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations between second-hand cigarette tobacco-smoke exposure, or active smoking and serum concentrations of steroid hormones using tandem mass spectrometry. DESIGN Healthy women (18-45 y)(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace nutrient that is potentially toxic at high levels of exposure. As a constituent of numerous enzymes and a cofactor, manganese plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes in mammals. The manganese-containing enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), is the principal antioxidant enzyme which(More)
PURPOSE In children, data on the combined impact of age, genotype, and disease severity on tacrolimus (TAC) disposition are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these covariates on tacrolimus dose requirements in the immediate post-transplant period in pediatric kidney and liver recipients. METHODS Data were retrospectively(More)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health concern for men in the USA. Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with the pathogenesis of various cancers, including PCa. Circulatory forms of miRNAs have been detected in serum and hold promise as minimally invasive cancer biomarkers. This study aimed to identify potential circulatory miRNAs(More)
The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for(More)
BACKGROUND Toxoplasma gondii infection is embryotoxic in humans. It is mainly transmitted through raw/undercooked meat and ingestion of oocysts in cat feces. There remains controversy about the actual risk of cats transmitting the disease to humans. Our primary objective was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibody among veterinary staff, to(More)
During the last four decades, there have been considerable advances in the efficacy and precision of serum thyroid function testing. The development of the third generation assays for the measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin) and the log-linear relationship with free thyroxine (T4) established TSH as the hallmark of thyroid(More)