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BACKGROUND Euthyroid women experience dramatic changes in the demand for thyroid hormone production as early as the first trimester of pregnancy. These changes are important for fetal neurodevelopment and organ development as well as maternal health and succesful full term pregnancy. Therefore, gestation-specific reference intervals assist in appropriate(More)
Significant differences that exist between the sexes affect the prevalence, incidence and severity of a broad range of diseases and conditions. Men and women also differ in their response to drug treatment. It is therefore essential to understand these reactions in order to appropriately conduct risk assessment and to design safe and effective treatments.(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish normal, trimester-specific reference intervals for serum 17beta-estradiol, progesterone (P), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, DHEA, and DHEAS, measured simultaneously using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. DESIGN Sequential cohort study. PATIENT(S) Healthy women undergoing a(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing scientific evidence suggests that exposure to phthalates during pregnancy may be associated with an elevated risk of adverse reproductive outcomes such as preterm birth. Maternal endocrine disruption across pregnancy may be one pathway mediating some of these relationships. We investigated whether urinary phthalate metabolites were(More)
OBJECTIVES This study was designed to improve our previously developed tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for free thyroxine (FT4) by enhancing sensitivity and permitting simultaneous measurements of both free triidothyronine (FT3) and FT4 using a smaller plasma/serum sample. DESIGN AND METHODS An API-5,000 tandem mass spectrometer equipped with(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate assessment of the pregnant woman's thyroid status is critical, for both the initiation of thyroid hormone therapy and for the adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in those already receiving thyroid hormone. Trimester-specific intervals are especially important during pregnancy when thyroid insufficiency may be associated with adverse(More)
Physiological, hormonal, and genetic differences between males and females affect the prevalence, incidence, and severity of diseases and responses to therapy. Understanding these differences is important for designing safe and effective treatments. This paper summarizes sex differences that impact drug disposition and includes a general comparison of(More)
The developing central nervous system (CNS) is more vulnerable to injury than the adult one. Although a great deal of research has been devoted to subtle effects of developmental exposure, such as neurobehavioral changes, this review instead focuses on a number of chemicals that have been shown, in several experimental models as well as humans, to cause(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace nutrient that is potentially toxic at high levels of exposure. As a constituent of numerous enzymes and a cofactor, manganese plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes in mammals. The manganese-containing enzyme, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), is the principal antioxidant enzyme which(More)