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The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) is a condition characterized by systemic inflammation and an elevation of fetal plasma interleukin-6. This syndrome has been observed in fetuses with preterm labor with intact membranes, preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes, and also fetal viral infections such as cytomegalovirus. FIRS is a risk factor(More)
INTRODUCTION Accumulating evidence suggests that an imbalance between pro-angiogenic (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF)) and anti-angiogenic factors (i.e., soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1, also referred to as sFlt1)) is involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Endoglin is a protein that(More)
Galectins are proteins that regulate immune responses through the recognition of cell-surface glycans. We present evidence that 16 human galectin genes are expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and demonstrate that a cluster of 5 galectin genes on human chromosome 19 emerged during primate evolution as a result of duplication and rearrangement of genes(More)
The implicit paradigm that has governed the study and clinical management of preterm labour is that term and preterm parturition are the same processes, except for the gestational age at which they occur. Indeed, both share a common pathway composed of uterine contractility, cervical dilatation and activation of the membranes/decidua. This review explores(More)
The placenta is essential for the success of therian mammalian reproduction. Intense selective pressure has shaped changes in placental anatomy and function during mammalian cladogenesis. Here we challenge the view that the hemochorial placenta is a derived feature in haplorhine primates. Using phylogenetic and statistical analyses of molecular and(More)
The human genome evolution project seeks to reveal the genetic underpinnings of key phenotypic features that are distinctive of humans, such as a greatly enlarged cerebral cortex, slow development, and long life spans. This project has focused predominantly on genotypic changes during the 6-million-year descent from the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans(More)
OBJECTIVE Changes in the maternal plasma concentrations of angiogenic (placental growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)) and anti-angiogenic factors (sEng and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1)) precede the clinical presentation of preeclampsia. This study was conducted to examine the role of maternal plasma(More)
This editorial critically examines the definition of "cervical insufficiency." The definition, the clinical ascertainment, efforts to develop an objective method of diagnosis, as well as the nature of cervical disease leading to spontaneous mid-trimester spontaneous abortion and preterm delivery are reviewed. The value and limitations of cervical sonography(More)
OBJECTIVE The anti-inflammatory limb of the immune response is crucial for dampening inflammation. Spontaneous parturition at term and preterm labor (PTL) are mediated by inflammation in the cervix, membranes, and myometrium. This study focuses on the changes in the amniotic fluid concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)- 10. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Microbial biofilms are communities of sessile microorganisms formed by cells that are attached irreversibly to a substratum or interface or to each other and embedded in a hydrated matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Microbial biofilms have been implicated in >80% of human infections such as periodontitis, urethritis, endocarditis, and(More)