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The fetus and newborn face a complex set of immunological demands, including protection against infection, avoidance of harmful inflammatory immune responses that can lead to pre-term delivery, and balancing the transition from a sterile intra-uterine environment to a world that is rich in foreign antigens. These demands shape a distinct neonatal innate(More)
Iodide (I-) is an essential constituent of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4, and is accumulated by the thyroid. The transport of iodide, the first step in thyroid hormogenesis, is catalysed by the Na+/I- symporter, an intrinsic membrane protein that is crucial for the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders. Although several other important(More)
This article presents projects as powerful strategic weapons, initiated to create economic value and competitive advantage. It suggests that project managers are the new strategic leaders, who must take on total responsibility for project business results. Defining and assessing project success is therefore a strategic management concept, which should help(More)
The rat thyroid Na+/I- symporter (NIS) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized using electrophysiological, tracer uptake, and electron microscopic methods. NIS activity was found to be electrogenic and Na+-dependent (Na+ >> Li+ >> H+). The apparent affinity constants for Na+ and I- were 28 +/- 3 mM and 33 +/- 9 microM, respectively.(More)
Given the "inborn" nature of the innate immune system, it is surprising to find that innate immune function does in fact change with age. Similar patterns of distinct Toll-like-receptor-mediated immune responses come to light when one contrasts innate immune development at the beginning of life with that toward the end of life. Importantly, these(More)
The gene encoding the Na/I symporter (NIS) is expressed at high levels only in thyroid follicular cells, where its expression is regulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone via the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP). In this study, we demonstrate the presence of an enhancer that is located between nucleotides -2264 and -2495 in the 5'-flanking region of(More)
Newborns are prone to microbial infection and have poor memory responses to multiple antigens. We have previously shown that human neonatal blood monocytes exhibit impaired TNF-alpha responses to most known TLR agonists, including the pure TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Surprisingly, however, neonatal TNF-alpha responses to the imiquimod congener R-848 (TLR 7/8)(More)
Clinical experience with the Copeland cementless surface replacement arthroplasty (CSRA) of the shoulder now spans 17 years. Between 1986 and 1997, 79 CSRAs (42 total shoulder replacements and 37 hemiarthroplasties) were performed for primary osteoarthritis of the shoulder. Total shoulder replacement was done in 12 men and 30 women with a mean age of 71.5(More)
BACKGROUND Total knee arthroplasty is associated with major postoperative blood loss of approximately 800 to 1200 milliliters, and blood transfusion is frequently required. With the increased concern about the risks of blood transfusion, various methods of blood conservation in orthopaedic surgery have been studied. The most appropriate solution, however,(More)
The Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) is a key plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active I(-) transport in the thyroid gland (Dai, G., Levy, O., and Carrasco, N. (1996) Nature 379, 458-460), the first step in thyroid hormone biogenesis. Whereas relatively little is known about the mechanisms by which thyrotropin (TSH), the main hormonal regulator of(More)