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Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important cause of nosocomial Gram-negative sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered to be a major virulence determinant of this encapsulated bacterium and most mutations to the lipid A anchor of LPS are conditionally lethal to the bacterium. We studied the role of LPS acylation in K. pneumoniae disease pathogenesis by(More)
Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) mutate rapidly and can be useful markers for genotyping. While multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA) is increasingly used in the detection and investigation of food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and other bacterial pathogens, MLVA data analysis usually relies on simple(More)
Memory T cells exert antigen-independent effector functions, but how these responses are regulated is unclear. We discovered an in vivo link between flagellin-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation in splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and host protective interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by noncognate memory CD8(+) T cells, which could be activated by Salmonella(More)
Analysing the pathogenic mechanisms of a bacterium requires an understanding of the composition of the bacterial cell surface. The bacterial surface provides the first barrier against innate immune mechanisms as well as mediating attachment to cells/surfaces to resist clearance. We utilised a series of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants in which the two major(More)
Klebsiella pneumoniae causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly amongst hospitalized individuals. The principle mechanism for pathogenesis in hospital environments involves the formation of biofilms, primarily on implanted medical devices. In this study, we constructed a transposon mutant library in a clinical isolate, K. pneumoniae(More)
Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent of human chronic gastritis, a condition seen as a precursor to the development of gastrointestinal ulcers or gastric cancer. This study utilized the murine model of chronic H. pylori infection to characterize the role of macrophages in the induction of specific immune responses and gastritis and in the control of(More)
The humoral response to the gastrointestinal (GI) flora was analyzed in secretory Ig (sIg)-deficient polymeric IgR (pIgR)(-/-) mice and otherwise congenic C57BL/6 mice. While both strains carried an ileal flora of similar size and composition, increased bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node was demonstrated in pIgR(-/-) mice. Serum IgA was(More)
Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory enteropathy caused by cellular immunity to dietary gluten. More than 90% of patients carry HLA-DQ2 encoded by HLA-DQA1*05 and DQB1*02, and gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells from intestinal biopsies of these patients are HLA-DQ2-restricted, produce Th1 cytokines and preferentially recognize gluten peptides deamidated by(More)
The production of IgA is induced in an antigen-unspecific manner by commensal flora. These secretory antibodies (SAbs) may bind multiple antigens and are thought to eliminate commensal bacteria and self-antigens to avoid systemic recognition. In this study, we addressed the role of "innate" SAbs, i.e., those that are continuously produced in normal(More)
Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen. Mouse studies typically employ intravenous injection of Listeria, which results in systemic infection. After injection, Listeria quickly disseminates to the spleen and liver due to uptake by CD8α+ dendritic cells and Kupffer cells. Once phagocytosed, various bacterial(More)