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Increased levels of extracellular excitatory amino acids and failure of energy metabolism are two conditions associated with brain ischemia. In the present study we have combined the simultaneous inhibition of glutamate uptake and mitochondrial electron transport chain to simulate neuronal damage associated with brain ischemia. Results show that cerebellar(More)
Breathing is generated and controlled by a brainstem neuronal network. Both intrinsic and synaptic interactions are involved in respiratory rhythm generation and their contribution is state-dependent, changing with hypoxia and the neuromodulatory state. Cellular mechanisms involved in acute or chronic pathological conditions are still unknown. A dysfunction(More)
BACKGROUND Down's syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation. Reduced number and aberrant architecture of dendritic spines are common features of DS neuropathology. However, the mechanisms involved in DS spine alterations are not known. In addition to a relevant role in synapse formation and maintenance, astrocytes can regulate(More)
An increased concentration of extracellular glutamate is associated with neuronal damage induced by cerebral ischemia. We have demonstrated previously that exposure of cultured cerebellar granule neurons to L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (PDC), a glutamate uptake inhibitor, increases extracellular glutamate levels but does not induce neuronal damage.(More)
It is thought that the combination of extracellular glutamate accumulation and mitochondrial damage is involved in neuronal death associated with brain ischemia and hypoglycemia, and some neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. However, the mechanism whereby those two factors interact together to trigger neurodegeneration in this and other(More)
Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in acute neurological disorders such as ischemia, and in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD). Recently, a link between excitotoxicity and impairment of energy metabolism has been proposed. Important evidence suggests that metabolic inhibition exacerbates the toxic effect of(More)
This paper present the design of a novel embedded control system for improving attitude stabilization of a quad-rotor mini UAV. The control strategy uses low cost components and includes an extra control loop based on motor armature current feedback. This additional control loop significantly improves the performance of the quad-rotor attitude stability.(More)