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Imprinted genes show differential expression between maternal and paternal alleles as a consequence of epigenetic modification that can result in 'parent-of-origin' effects on phenotypic traits. There is increasing evidence from mouse and human studies that imprinted genes may influence behavior and cognitive functioning. Previous work in girls with Turner(More)
In mouse and man, deletions of specific regions of the Y chromosome have been linked to early failure of spermatogenesis and consequent sterility; the Y chromosomal gene(s) with this essential early role in spermatogenesis have not been identified. The partial deletion of the mouse Y short arm (the Sxrb deletion) that occurred when Tp(Y)1CtSxr-b (hereafter(More)
The male-specific region of the mouse Y chromosome long arm (MSYq) is comprised largely of repeated DNA, including multiple copies of the spermatid-expressed Ssty gene family. Large deletions of MSYq are associated with sperm head defects for which Ssty deficiency has been presumed to be responsible. In a search for further candidate genes associated with(More)
Multicopy Y-chromosomal genes in human and mouse have been postulated to play a role in spermatogenesis. The mouse Y long arm (Yq) carries hundreds of supposedly intronless copies of Ssty, for which no protein has hitherto been identified; mice lacking Yq are sterile with grossly abnormal sperm. We have now identified an Ssty-encoded protein (Ssty1) that is(More)
The mouse Y chromosome carries 10 distinct genes or gene families that have open reading frames suggestive of retained functionality; it has been assumed that many of these function in spermatogenesis. However, we have recently shown that only two Y genes, the testis determinant Sry and the translation initiation factor Eif2s3y, are essential for(More)
The human and mouse sex chromosomes are enriched in multicopy genes required for postmeiotic differentiation of round spermatids into sperm. The gene Sly is present in multiple copies on the mouse Y chromosome and encodes a protein that is required for the epigenetic regulation of postmeiotic sex chromosome expression. The X chromosome carries two multicopy(More)
XO Turner women, irrespective of the parental source of the X chromosome, are of short stature, and this is now thought to be largely a consequence of haploinsufficiency for the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) gene SHOX. X(p)O mice (with a paternal X) are developmentally retarded in fetal life, are underweight at birth, and show reduced weight gain in the(More)
Mammalian ZFY genes are located on the Y chromosome, and code putative transcription factors with 12-13 zinc fingers preceded by a large acidic (activating) domain. In mice, there are two genes, Zfy1 and Zfy2, which are expressed mainly in the testis. Their transcription increases in germ cells as they enter meiosis, both are silenced by meiotic sex(More)
The X-linked gene STS encodes the steroid hormone-modulating enzyme steroid sulfatase. Loss-of-function of STS, and variation within the gene, have been associated with vulnerability to developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by inattention, severe impulsivity, hyperactivity, and motivational(More)
Chromosomal deletions at Xp22.3 appear to influence vulnerability to the neurodevelopmental disorders attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. 39,X(Y*)O mice, which lack the murine orthologue of the Xp22.3 ADHD candidate gene STS (encoding steroid sulfatase), exhibit behavioural phenotypes relevant to such disorders (e.g. hyperactivity),(More)