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BACKGROUND Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a rare cancer that has increased in incidence with the HIV pandemic in Africa. The underlying cause of this cancer in HIV-infected patients from Botswana is not well defined. RESULTS Tissues were obtained from 28 OSSN and 8 pterygia patients. The tissues analyzed from OSSN patients were 83% positive(More)
AIM The aim of the survey was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of visual impairment and blindness in Botswana 50 years and older and assess access to cataract surgical services. METHOD a multistage cluster randomized sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of 2,662(More)
This article reviews the magnitude and spectrum of ocular complications of HIV infection in sub-Sahara Africa. A literature search was done using PubMed, Google, and UpToDate and by talking to ophthalmologists and HIV experts working in the region. Ocular complications of HIV infection, mostly retinal, are seen in 29% to 71% of patients. Cytomegalovirus(More)
1346 20 JUNE 2014 • VOL 344 ISSUE 6190 sciencemag.org SCIENCE O ur understanding of genome biology, genomics, and disease, and even human history, has advanced tremendously with the completion of the Human Genome Project. Technological advances coupled with significant cost reductions in genomic research have yielded novel insights into disease etiology,(More)
BACKGROUND Many low-income and middle-income countries globally are now pursuing ambitious plans for universal primary care, but are failing to deliver adequate care quality because of intractable human resource problems. AIM To understand why migrant nurses and doctors from sub-Saharan Africa did not wish to take up available posts in primary and(More)
universal health coverage—a good-quality clinical workforce is needed that has access to diagnostic and treatment facilities, and is incentivised to work where it is most needed. 5,6 In low-income and middle-income countries, this need is invariably greatest in primary care and fi rst-contact care, both because of the nature of the health services that most(More)
BACKGROUND Botswana is a large middle-income country in Southern Africa with a population of just over two million. Shortage of human resources for health is blamed for the inability to provide high quality accessible health services. There is however a lack of integrated, comprehensive and readily-accessible data on the health workforce. AIM The aim of(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization defines a "critical shortage" of health workers as being fewer than 2.28 health workers per 1000 population and failing to attain 80% coverage for deliveries by skilled birth attendants. We aimed to quantify the number of health workers in five African countries and the proportion of these currently working in(More)
Migration of health professionals is an important policy issue for both source and destination countries around the world. The majority of migrant care workers in industrialized countries today are women. However, the dimension of mobility of highly skilled females from countries of the global south has been almost entirely neglected for many years. This(More)