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Pathophysiology of polytrauma.
Immediate and early trauma deaths are determined by primary brain injuries, or significant blood loss (haemorrhagic shock), while late mortality is caused by secondary brain injuries and host defenceExpand
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Incidence and clinical pattern of the abdominal compartment syndrome after “damage-control” laparotomy in 311 patients with severe abdominal and/or pelvic trauma
Objective To investigate the incidence, main physiologic effects, and therapeutic management of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after severe abdominal and/or pelvic trauma. DesignExpand
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Control of Severe Hemorrhage Using C-Clamp and Pelvic Packing in Multiply Injured Patients With Pelvic Ring Disruption
Objectives Evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic workup in multiply injured patients with pelvic ring disruption and hemorrhagic shock. Design Prospective study. Patients Twenty consecutiveExpand
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Timing of Fixation of Major Fractures in Blunt Polytrauma: Role of Conventional Indicators in Clinical Decision Making
Grading of the clinical status in patients with multiple trauma is important regarding the treatment plan. In recent years, 4 different clinical conditions have been described: stable, borderline,Expand
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IL-10 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with severe traumatic brain injury: relationship to IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and blood-brain barrier function.
Controlling the extent of inflammatory responses following brain injury may be beneficial since posttraumatic intracranial inflammation has been associated with adverse outcome. In order to elucidateExpand
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Intrathecal and serum interleukin-6 and the acute-phase response in patients with severe traumatic brain injuries.
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) show a profound acute-phase response. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important mediator of these pathophysiological changes, IL-6 levels wereExpand
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Downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine release in whole blood from septic patients.
Using animal models or healthy volunteers, injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or bacteria causes activation of macrophages with excessive synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines.Expand
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Markers for cell-mediated immune response are elevated in cerebrospinal fluid and serum after severe traumatic brain injury in humans.
The brain is believed to be an immunologically privileged organ, sheltered from the systemic immunological defense by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, there is increasing evidence for a markedExpand
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S-100 beta reflects the extent of injury and outcome, whereas neuronal specific enolase is a better indicator of neuroinflammation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
It has been hypothesized that immunoactivation may contribute to brain damage and affect outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In order to determine the role of inflammation after TBI, weExpand
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Incidence of septic complications and multiple organ failure in severely injured patients is sex specific.
BACKGROUND Sexual hormones are potent regulators of various immune functions. Although androgens are immunosuppressive, estrogens protect against septic challenges in animal models. This studyExpand
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