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Pathogen Recognition and Innate Immunity
TLDR
New insights into innate immunity are changing the way the way the authors think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity. Expand
Pattern Recognition Receptors and Inflammation
TLDR
The role of PRRs, their signaling pathways, and how they control inflammatory responses are discussed. Expand
Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses
TLDR
It is found that RIG-I is essential for the production of interferons in response to RNA viruses including paramyxoviruses, influenza virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, whereas MDA5 is critical for picornavirus detection. Expand
A Toll-like receptor recognizes bacterial DNA
TLDR
It is shown that cellular response to CpG DNA is mediated by a Toll-like receptor, TLR9, and vertebrate immune systems appear to have evolved a specific Toll- like receptor that distinguishes bacterial DNA from self-DNA. Expand
IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction
TLDR
IPS-1 contained an N-terminal CARD-like structure that mediated interaction with the CARD of RIG-I and Mda5, which are cytoplasmic RNA helicases that sense viral infection and blocked interferon induction by virus infection. Expand
Role of Adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-Independent Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway
TLDR
It is shown that TRIF is essential for TLR3- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways facilitating mammalian antiviral host defense and complete loss of nuclear factor kappa B activation in response toTLR4 stimulation is demonstrated. Expand
Cutting edge: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice are hyporesponsive to lipopolysaccharide: evidence for TLR4 as the Lps gene product.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that TLR4 is the gene product that regulates LPS response, and a single point mutation of the amino acid that is highly conserved among the IL-1/Toll receptor family is found. Expand
Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components in vivo andTLR2 plays a major role in Gram-positive bacterial recognition. Expand
TRIM25 RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase is essential for RIG-I-mediated antiviral activity
TLDR
It is demonstrated that TRIM25 E3 ubiquitin ligase induces the Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, which is crucial for the cytosolic Rig-I signalling pathway to elicit host antiviral innate immunity. Expand
Small anti-viral compounds activate immune cells via the TLR7 MyD88–dependent signaling pathway
TLDR
It is shown that the imidazoquinolines activate immune cells via the Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)-MyD88–dependent signaling pathway, and that neither MyD88- nor TLR7-deficient mice showed any inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages, proliferation of splenocytes or maturation of dendritic cells. Expand
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