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Gut Microbiome Metagenomics Analysis Suggests a Functional Model for the Development of Autoimmunity for Type 1 Diabetes
TLDR
Detailed differences in metabolic potential indicate that autoimmune subjects have a functionally aberrant microbiome, and data suggest that a consortium of lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria in a healthy gut induce a sufficient amount of mucin synthesis to maintain gut integrity.
Toward defining the autoimmune microbiome for type 1 diabetes
TLDR
Three lines of evidence are presented that support the notion that, as healthy infants approach the toddler stage, their microbiomes become healthier and more stable, whereas, children who are destined for autoimmunity develop a microbiome that is less diverse and stable.
Seroconversion to multiple islet autoantibodies and risk of progression to diabetes in children.
TLDR
The majority of children at risk of type 1 diabetes who had multiple islet autoantibody seroconversion progressed to diabetes over the next 15 years, and future prevention studies should focus on this high-risk population.
Dysregulation of lipid and amino acid metabolism precedes islet autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes
TLDR
Serum metabolite profiles were compared between sample series drawn from children who progressed to type 1 diabetes and controls who remained nondiabetic and permanently autoantibody negative, finding that autoimmunity may be a relatively late response to the early metabolic disturbances.
Identification of SLC7A7, encoding y+LAT-1, as the lysinuric protein intolerance gene
TLDR
It is established that mutations in SLC7A7 cDNA cause Lysinuric protein intolerance, a rare, recessive disorder with a worldwide distribution, but with a high prevalence in the Finnish population.
Humoral beta-cell autoimmunity in relation to HLA-defined disease susceptibility in preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes.
TLDR
Observations suggest that HLA genes have a strong impact on the appearance of diabetes-associated autoantibodies both in first-degree relatives of affected children and in the general population.
Maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy is inversely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis in 5‐year‐old children
Background Vitamin D is known to have a number of immunological effects and it may play a role in preventing allergic diseases.
The first signs of beta-cell autoimmunity appear in infancy in genetically susceptible children from the general population: the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study.
TLDR
It is suggested that young children in the general population with a strong human-leukocyte-antigen-DQ-defined genetic risk of type 1 diabetes show signs of beta-cell autoimmunity proportionally more often than those with a moderate genetic risk.
New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism
TLDR
The number of loci associated at genome-wide significance to 7, accounting for a similar proportion of variance as maternal smoking, are extended and highlight genetic links between fetal growth and postnatal growth and metabolism.
Coxsackievirus B1 Is Associated With Induction of β-Cell Autoimmunity That Portends Type 1 Diabetes
TLDR
The results support previous observations suggesting that the group B coxsackieviruses are associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes, and the clustering of the risk and protective viruses to this narrow phylogenetic lineage supports the biological plausibility of this phenomenon.
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