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Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mechanisms of Their Targeting to the Cell Wall Envelope
The mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria are described and the functions of known surface proteins are reviewed.
Exogenous and endogenous glycolipid antigens activate NKT cells during microbial infections
Evidence is reported for microbial, antigen-specific activation of NKT cells against Gram-negative, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-negative alpha-Proteobacteria such as Ehrlichia muris and Sphingomonas capsulata and shows that glycosylceramides are an alternative to LPS for innate recognition of the Gram- negative, LPS-negative bacterial cell wall.
Allelic replacement in Staphylococcus aureus with inducible counter-selection.
Using this strategy, allelic replacements in S. aureus rocA were generated at frequencies that obviated the need for antibiotic marker selection.
Assembly of pili on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae
It is shown here that pili of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are composed of three pilin subunits, SpaA, SpaB and SpaC, which suggest that the pilus fibres may be anchored to the cell wall envelope.
Genome Sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Strain Newman and Comparative Analysis of Staphylococcal Genomes: Polymorphism and Evolution of Two Major Pathogenicity Islands
- T. Baba, T. Bae, O. Schneewind, F. Takeuchi, K. Hiramatsu
- Medicine, BiologyJournal of bacteriology
- 19 October 2007
The complete genome sequence of S. aureus Newman is reported, which carries four integrated prophages, as well as two large pathogenicity islands, and the absence of drug resistance genes reflects the general antibiotic-susceptible phenotype of Sengers Newman.
Sortases and the Art of Anchoring Proteins to the Envelopes of Gram-Positive Bacteria
- L. Marraffini, Andrea C Dedent, O. Schneewind
- Biology, MedicineMicrobiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
- 1 March 2006
This review focuses on the mechanisms of surface protein anchoring to the cell wall envelope by sortases and the role that these enzymes play in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis.
Passage of Heme-Iron Across the Envelope of Staphylococcus aureus
Isd appears to act as an import apparatus that uses cell wall–anchored proteins to relay heme-iron across the bacterial envelope.
Synthesis of glycerol phosphate lipoteichoic acid in Staphylococcus aureus
- A. Gründling, O. Schneewind
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 15 May 2007
It is reported that Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthesizes glycerol phosphate LTA, a component of the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria, and can be used as a target to treat human infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. aUREus or other bacterial pathogens.
An iron-regulated sortase anchors a class of surface protein during Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis
- S. Mazmanian, H. Ton-That, Kenneth Su, O. Schneewind
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 5 February 2002
Cell wall-anchored surface proteins and the isd locus seem involved in a novel mechanism of iron acquisition that is important for bacterial pathogenesis.
Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection
- Melanie M. Marketon, R. DePaolo, Kristin L Debord, B. Jabri, O. Schneewind
- Biology, MedicineScience
- 9 September 2005
It appears that Y. pestis disables these cell populations to annihilate host immune responses during plague, and selected immune cells for injection are selected.