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How the worm got its pharynx: phylogeny, classification and Bayesian assessment of character evolution in Acoela.
A phylogenetic classification of Acoela down to the family level where six previous family level taxa are synonymized and Diopisthoporidae is the sister group to all other acoels and has the highest posterior similarity to the root.
Evolution of the nervous system in Paraphanostoma (Acoela)
The evolution of the nervous system in Paraphanostoma (Acoela) is described in detail in Raikova, O. & Jondelius, U. (2004).
A commissural brain! The pattern of 5-HT immunoreactivity in Acoela (Plathelminthes)
The unique commissural brain and cordal nervous system found in A coela support the view of a deep gap lying between Acoela and other Plathelminthes.
Basiepidermal nervous system in Nemertoderma westbladi (Nemertodermatida): GYIRFamide immunoreactivity.
The study demonstrates that the nemertodermatid NS possesses a number of plesiomorphic features and appears more primitive than the NS in other worms, except the Xenoturbellida.
Rotifer muscles as revealed by phalloidin‐TRITC staining and confocal scanning laser microscopy
By combining phalloidin-TRITC staining with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), the pattern of the musculature in two species of Rotifera, Euchlanis dilatata unisetata and Brachionus
Rotifer nervous system visualized by FMRFamide and 5-HT immunocytochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy
We present the first results of immunocytochemical (ICC) observations on serotonin (5-HT) and FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2) immunoreactivity patterns in the rotifer nervous system investigated
The brain of the Nemertodermatida (Platyhelminthes) as revealed by anti-5HT and anti-FMRFamide immunostainings.
It is demonstrated that the Nemertodermatida have neither a 'commissural brain' structure similar to that of the Acoela, nor a 'true', ganglionic brain and orthogon, typical for other Platyhelminthes.
Neuropeptides in flatworms
The use of well-characterized antibodies raised to neuronal signal substances and their application through immunocytochemistry and confocal scanning laser microscopy has revolutionized studies of
An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the nervous and muscular systems of Xenoturbella westbladi (Bilateria inc. sed.)
The results are compatible with the hypothesis of Xenoturbella westbladi forming a sister taxon to Bilateria and the organisation of the nervous system appears very simple.
Cleavage in Nemertoderma westbladi (Nemertodermatida) and its phylogenetic significance
The early embryonic cleavage in Nemertoderma westbladi is studied to provide the first account of nemertodermatid early development and the optimization of the cleavage pattern on current phylogenetic hypotheses with Nemertodmatida and Acoela as early bilaterian branches is discussed.