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Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin
TLDR
Information on the current understanding of the mechanisms of patulin toxinogenesis is included, and its toxicological effects are summarized.
Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe
TLDR
The data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and the occurrence of these co-contaminations are reviewed and highlighted.
Trypacidin, a Spore-Borne Toxin from Aspergillus fumigatus, Is Cytotoxic to Lung Cells
TLDR
The first time that the toxicity of trypacidin to lung cells has been reported is reported, and it is found that spores of A. fumigatus contain five main compounds, tryptoquivaline F, fumiquinazoline C, questin, monomethylsulochrin and try pacidin.
Mycotoxins co-contamination: Methodological aspects and biological relevance of combined toxicity studies
TLDR
It is indicated that well-addressed in vitro studies remain valuable tools for the screening of interactive potential in mycotoxin mixtures.
Toxicological interactions between the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and their acetylated derivatives in intestinal epithelial cells
TLDR
Results indicate that the simultaneous presence of mycotoxins in food commodities and diet may be more toxic than predicted from the mycotoxin alone, and synergy between type B trichothecenes and type B mixtures should be taken into account.
Co-exposure to low doses of the food contaminants deoxynivalenol and nivalenol has a synergistic inflammatory effect on intestinal explants
TLDR
Investigating the intestinal inflammatory response to DON, NIV and their mixture indicates that inflammation is a very sensitive endpoint for the intestinal toxicity of the trichothecenes and co-exposure to DON and NIV has a greater inflammatory effect than induced by mycotoxins alone.
A study on the physicochemical parameters for Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production: effect of temperature, pH, and water activity
TLDR
A mathematical model allowing the estimation of the P. expansum growth rate according to temperature, a W, and pH, was developed and tested successfully and could be exploited by apple growers and the industrialists of fruit juices in order to predict the development of P. expandum during storage and apple processing.
Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Genetic Regulation: A Review
TLDR
The role of global environmental factors on aflatoxin production and the recent data that demonstrate an interconnection between genes regulated by these environmental signals and a Flatoxin biosynthetic pathway are illustrated.
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