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Avian hairy Gene Expression Identifies a Molecular Clock Linked to Vertebrate Segmentation and Somitogenesis
The identified and characterized c-hairy1, an avian homolog of the Drosophila segmentation gene, hairy, provides molecular evidence for a developmental clock linked to segmentation and somitogenesis of the paraxial mesoderm and support the possibility that segmentation mechanisms used by invertebrates and vertebrates have been conserved.
FGF Signaling Controls Somite Boundary Position and Regulates Segmentation Clock Control of Spatiotemporal Hox Gene Activation
It is reported that FGF8 which is expressed in the posterior PSM, generates a moving wavefront at which level both segment boundary position and axial identity become determined, and it is shown that Hox gene expression is maintained in the appropriately numbered somite rather than at an absolute axial position.
Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution
A draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus, provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes.
Lateral and Axial Signals Involved in Avian Somite Patterning: A Role for BMP4
This work reports the identification of a specific marker for the lateral somitic compartment and its early derivatives, cSim1, an avian homolog of the Drosophila single minded gene, and implicates bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4) in directing this lateralization.
Notch signalling is required for cyclic expression of the hairy-like gene HES1 in the presomitic mesoderm.
The identification and characterisation of a second avian hairy-related gene, c-hairy2, is reported, which also cycles in the PSM and whose sequence is closely related to the mammalian HES1 gene, a downstream target of Notch signalling in vertebrates.
Maintenance of neuroepithelial progenitor cells by Delta–Notch signalling in the embryonic chick retina
It is proposed that the same mechanism operates throughout the vertebrate CNS, enabling large numbers of neurons to be produced sequentially and adopt different characters in response to a variety of signals.
Retinoic acid
How is retinoic acid produced? In vertebrates, vitamin A, in the form of retinyl esters, is stored mainly in the liver as well as in the lungs, kidneys and bone marrow. Retinol, bound to the
fgf8 mRNA decay establishes a gradient that couples axial elongation to patterning in the vertebrate embryo
It is shown that transcription of fgf8 messenger RNA is restricted to the growing posterior tip of the embryo, which provides an efficient means to monitor the timing of FGF signalling, coupling the differentiation of embryonic tissues to the posterior elongation of the embryos.
Noggin acts downstream of Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog to antagonize BMP4 in avian somite patterning.
This work demonstrates that Noggin expression in the somite is under the control of a neural-tube-derived factor, whose effect can be mimicked experimentally by Wnt1, and shows that Sonic Hedgehog is able to activate ectopic expression of Noggins resulting in the blocking of BMP4 specification of the lateral somite.
Segmental patterning of the vertebrate embryonic axis
The current understanding of the segmentation process in vertebrates is reviewed and the segmental pattern is established during embryogenesis when the somites — the embryonic segments of vertebrates — are rhythmically produced from the paraxial mesoderm.