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67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, a Jupiter family comet with a high D/H ratio
The direct in situ measurement of the D/H ratio in the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the ROSINA mass spectrometer aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft is found to be (5.3 ± 0.7) × 10−4—that is, approximately three times the terrestrial value.
Liquid water on Enceladus from observations of ammonia and 40 Ar in the plume
Since Cassini spacecraft images revealed plumes of water vapour and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2006, the search for the water source has been on. Possibilities include
Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko
The observations indicate that the O2/H2O ratio is isotropic in the coma and does not change systematically with heliocentric distance, which suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet’s formation, which is unexpected given the low upper limits from remote sensing observations.
Molecular nitrogen in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko indicates a low formation temperature
Direct measurements of N2 by instruments aboard the Rosetta spacecraft provide clues about the comet’s long history and depletion of molecular nitrogen at levels that are depleted compared to those in the primordial solar system suggests that the comet formed at low-temperature conditions below ~30 kelvin.
Liquid water on Enceladus from observations of ammonia and 40Ar in the plume
Jets of water ice from surface fractures near the south pole of Saturn’s icy moon Enceladus produce a plume of gas and particles. The source of the jets may be a liquid water region under the ice
Origins of volatile elements (H, C, N, noble gases) on Earth and Mars in light of recent results from the ROSETTA cometary mission
Recent measurements of the volatile composition of the coma of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (hereafter 67P) allow constraints to be set on the origin of volatile elements (water, carbon, nitrogen,
Erratum: Enrichments in Volatiles in Jupiter: A New Interpretation of the Galileo Measurements
Using an evolutionary model of the solar nebula, we fit all enrichments in volatiles with respect to the solar abundance measured in Jupiter by the Galileo probe. We argue that volatiles were trapped
Prebiotic chemicals—amino acid and phosphorus—in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
The presence of volatile glycine accompanied by methylamine and ethylamines in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko measured by the ROSINA (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) mass spectrometer demonstrates that comets could have played a crucial role in the emergence of life on Earth.
Terrestrial planets in the solar system, such as the Earth, are oxygen-rich, with silicates and iron being the most common minerals in their interiors. However, the true chemical diversity of rocky
Deuterium Fractionation: the Ariadne's Thread from the Pre-collapse Phase to Meteorites and Comets today
The Solar System formed about 4.6 billion years ago from a condensation of matter inside a molecular cloud. Trying to reconstruct what happened is the goal of this chapter. For that, we put together