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Intrauterine devices and pelvic inflammatory disease: an international perspective
Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer – collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58 515 women with breast cancer and 95 067 women without the disease
In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis.
Female genital mutilation and obstetric outcome: WHO collaborative prospective study in six African countries
Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52 705 women with breast cancer and 108 411 women without breast cancer
Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies
Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies
Who continues to smoke while pregnant?
- S. Cnattingius, G. Lindmark, O. Meirik
- MedicineJournal of epidemiology and community health
- 1 June 1992
It was found that high parity number, not living with infant's father, heavy smoking, and daily passive smoking at home were associated with significantly increased risk for continued smoking during pregnancy.
Steroid Hormone Contraception and Bone Mineral Density: A Cross‐Sectional Study in an International Population
Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer in young women.
There was no significant interaction between smoking, use of OCs, parity, and breast cancer, and a moderate or high current consumption of beer, wine, liquor or total alcohol did not increase the risk of breast cancer.