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Comparison of urinary excretion characteristics of ethanol and ethyl glucuronide.
TLDR
It was demonstrated that EtG remains detectable in the urine for many hours after the ethanol itself has been eliminated, and it was possible to lower the concentration of EtG by drinking large amounts of water prior to voiding, whereas this strategy did not influence the EtG/creatinine ratio or the concentrate of ethanol.
Ethyl sulfate: a metabolite of ethanol in humans and a potential biomarker of acute alcohol intake.
TLDR
The present results confirm that sulfate conjugation is a normal but minor metabolic pathway for ethanol in humans, and EtS a common constituent in the urine after alcohol intake, and indicated that the concurrent determination of EtS and EtG will improve sensitivity, when being used as biomarkers of recent drinking.
Intoxications by the dissociative new psychoactive substances diphenidine and methoxphenidine
TLDR
The adverse effects noted in analytically confirmed cases of NPS intoxication involving diphenidine or MXP were similar to those reported for other dissociative substances such as ketamine and methoxetamine, but the high proportion of polysubstance use might have played a role in the intoxication and clinical features in some cases.
Detection times for urinary ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in heavy drinkers during alcohol detoxification.
TLDR
During alcohol detoxification, EtG and EtS remained detectable in urine for several days and the detection times showed wide inter-individual variations, also after adjusting values for urine dilution and to the estimated times for a completed ethanol elimination.
Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug relapse in criminal offenders with substance dependence: a 24-week randomized placebo-controlled trial
TLDR
Methylphenidate treatment reduces attention deficithyperactivity disorder symptoms and the risk for relapse to substance use in criminal offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance dependence.
Intoxications involving acrylfentanyl and other novel designer fentanyls – results from the Swedish STRIDA project
TLDR
Potentially life-threatening opioid toxicity was seen in 11 acute intoxications involving the fentanyl analogs acrylfentanyl, 4Cl-i BF, 4F-iBF, and THF-F, which are available through open Internet trading.
Direct Quantification of Ethyl Glucuronide in Clinical Urine Samples by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
TLDR
A simple analytical procedure based on direct injection of urine diluted with a deuterated internal standard into an electrospray liquid chromatographic–mass spectrometric (LC-MS) system fulfilled the need for a simple and reliable assay in the evaluation of urinary ethyl glucuronide as a routine test of recent alcohol intake.
Evaluation of a new immunoassay for urinary ethyl glucuronide testing.
TLDR
A new enzyme immunoassay for quantification of urinary EtG indicated a high level of accuracy and selectivity and a threshold of 0.5 mg/L (2.2 mumol/L) is proposed to obtain a high sensitivity but avoid positive results due to unintentional ethanol exposure.
Method development for routine liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement of the alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood.
TLDR
Initial results indicated that individual calibration curves are required for MS quantitation of some PEth forms, and that deuterated analogs are preferable over phosphatidylpropanol as the internal standard.
Phencyclidine analog use in Sweden—intoxication cases involving 3-MeO-PCP and 4-MeO-PCP from the STRIDA project
TLDR
Clinical and bioanalytical data from analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxications associated with 3- and/or 4-MeO-PCP within the STRIDA project constitute an important basis for the assessment of NPS hazard and availability.
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