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The use of luciferases as reporters of gene expression in living cells has been extended to the chloroplast genome. We show that the luciferase from the soft coral Renilla reniformis (Rluc) can be successfully expressed in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Expression of the rluc cDNA was driven by the promoter and 5′ untranslated regions of the(More)
Certain group I introns insert into intronless DNA via an endonuclease that creates a double-strand break (DSB). There are two models for intron homing in phage: synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) and double-strand break repair (DSBR). The Cr.psbA4 intron homes efficiently from a plasmid into the chloroplast psbA gene in Chlamydomonas, but little(More)
The length at which the N terminus of nascent proteins becomes available to antibodies during their synthesis on ribosomes was determined. Three different proteins, bovine rhodanese, bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and MS2 coat protein, were synthesized with coumarin at their N terminus in a cell-free system derived from Escherichia coli. A(More)
Fluorescently labeled rhodanese was synthesized by coupled transcription/translation in a cell-free Escherichia coli system. A derivative of coumarin was co-translationally incorporated at the N terminus of the polypeptide. Molecules released from the ribosomes during the incubation are enzymatically active; however, continued incubation results in(More)
Ricin A-chain was used as a test protein to study the effects of deletion of codons on the ribosomal synthesis, release and chaperone-mediated folding of the proteins. Synthesis of wild-type ricin and five mutant proteins was carried out in an Escherichia coli cell-free coupled transcription/translation system from otherwise identical non-linearized(More)
Polypeptide synthesis using either phenylalanine or lysine was initiated on Escherichia coli ribosomes; then the position and conformation of the nascent peptide were monitored by fluorescence techniques. To this end, fluorophores had been attached to the amino terminus of each nascent peptide, and major differences were observed as chain extension(More)
Fluorescence techniques were used to examine aminoacyl-tRNA binding to Escherichia coli ribosomes and the subsequent extension of polyphenylalanine and polylysine nascent peptides. The results demonstrate that deacylated tRNA, an analogue of peptidyl-tRNA and puromycin (an analogue of aminoacyl-tRNA) can be bound simultaneously to the same ribosome.(More)
Synthesis of rhodanese in a cell-free coupled transcription/translation system derived from Escherichia coli leads to an accumulation of full-length rhodanese protein on the ribosomes as well as to enzymatically active protein that is released from the ribosomes into the supernatant fraction. The ribosome-bound protein is enzymatically inactive but can be(More)
The majority of known group II introns are from chloroplast genomes, yet the first self-splicing group II intron from a chloroplast gene was reported only recently, from the psbA gene of the euglenoid, Euglena myxocylindracea. Herein, we describe a large (2.6-kb) group II intron from the psbA gene (psbA1) of a psychrophilic Chlamydomonas sp. from Antarctica(More)