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We constructed a recombinant expression plasmid encoding a protein A--neurotoxin fusion protein. The fused toxin is directly expressed in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli and can be purified in the milligram range by a single immuno-affinity step. The LD50 values of the fused toxin and native toxin are 130 and 20 nmol/kg mouse respectively. The Kd(More)
Using site-directed mutagenesis, we previously identified some residues that probably belong to the site by which Erabutoxin a (Ea), a sea snake toxin, recognizes the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR) (Pillet, L., Trémeau, O., Ducancel, F. Drevet, P., Zinn-Justin, S., Pinkasfeld, S., Boulain, J.-C., and Ménez, A. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 909-916).(More)
To study the site by which erabutoxin a (Ea) from Laticauda semifasciata binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, we mutated most residues that are shared with other curaremimetic toxins and studied the structural and biological consequences of introduced mutations. By site-directed mutagenesis, we changed Ser-8 into Gly (EaS8G), Lys-27 into Glu(More)
We have defined the molecular environment of a snake neurotoxin interacting with the high- and low-affinity binding sites of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR). This was done by photocoupling reactions using three toxin derivatives with photoactivatable moieties on Lys-15, Lys-47, and Lys-51. Competition data showed that Lys-47 belongs to the(More)
This paper presents the comparative comprehensive analysis of NMR structural parameters (NOEs, scalar coupling, chemical shifts) of toxin gamma, a cardiotoxin isolated from the venom of Naja nigricollis, and three chemical derivatives, i.e. the 2-nitrophenylsulphonyl (NPS)-Trp11, 3-nitro-Tyr22 and 3-nitro-Tyr51 derivatives. In previous work, the chemical(More)
In several instances, a monoclonal antibody raised against a receptor ligand has been claimed to mimic the ligand receptor. Thus, a specific monoclonal antibody (Malpha2-3) raised against a short-chain toxin from snake was proposed to mimic the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (). Further confirming this mimicry, we show that (i) like AChR, Malpha2-3(More)
The aim of this work was to produce and to label snake neurotoxins, disulfide-rich proteins. A mutant of a snake toxin, erabutoxin a, was used as a model. Its N-terminal part was fused to ZZ, a synthetic IgG-binding domain of protein A (B. Nilsson et al., 1987, Protein Eng. 1, 107-113), thus preventing degradation in the bacterial cytoplasm and providing a(More)
One of the main possible origin of the biochemical variations of venoms could be genetic. We studied the venom of members of litters born in a snake farm (12 Crotalus atrox and 21 Naja haje). We first used the electrophoresis in cellulose acetate (AE). Then, variations were confirmed by immunoelectrophoresis (AIE) using an antivenom (IPSER Africa, Pasteur(More)
Examination of 76 homologous neurotoxin sequences suggested that the "toxic" domain of these compounds consists of twelve highly conserved residues. Five of these, namely Lys-27, Trp-29, Asp-31, Arg-33 and Glu-38, together with a variant residue at position 36 are organized into a pattern which resembles that of d-tubocurarine. Two lines of experimental(More)
We isolated a neurotoxin-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) which is capable of recognizing and neutralizing all short-chain toxin variants that have been tested, including those with widely divergent sequences. The epitope incorporates the three invariant residues Lys-27, Trp-29 and Lys-47 which form part of the site by which the toxins bind to the(More)