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BACKGROUND Preterm birth is a major contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity, affecting around 9% of births in high-income countries and an estimated 13% of births in low- and middle-income countries. Tocolytics are drugs used to suppress uterine contractions for women in preterm labour. The most widely used tocolytic are the betamimetics, however,(More)
BACKGROUND The aetiology of preterm birth is complex and there is evidence that subclinical genital tract infection influences preterm labour in some women but the role of prophylactic antibiotic treatment in the management of preterm labour is controversial. Since rupture of the membranes is an important factor in the progression of preterm labour, it is(More)
BACKGROUND Perineal trauma following vaginal birth can be associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. Antenatal perineal massage has been proposed as one method of decreasing the incidence of perineal trauma. OBJECTIVES To assess the effect of antenatal digital perineal massage on the incidence of perineal trauma at birth and(More)
UNLABELLED We describe a peptide-based strategy for HCV vaccine design that addresses the problem of variability in hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Peptides representing antibody epitopes of HVR1 from genotype 1a were synthesized and incorporated into multideterminant immunogens that also included lipid moieties and helper T (T(h)) cell epitopes. Mice(More)
BACKGROUND Prelabour rupture of the membranes (PROM) at or near term (defined in this review as 36 weeks' gestation or beyond) increases the risk of infection for the woman and her baby. The routine use of antibiotics for women at the time of term PROM may reduce this risk. However, due to increasing problems with bacterial resistance and the risk of(More)
The ability of antigens to elicit immune responses depends upon their initial recognition, uptake, processing and presentation by dendritic cells. This fact has been recognized by many workers and dendritic cells are now regarded as natural 'adjuvants' in the business of vaccine design. One way of persuading dendritic cells to become interested in foreign(More)
Measuring mRNA expression is fundamental to placental research. Ideally, mRNA transcript numbers are directly quantified. However, PCR analysis using the ΔΔCT method relies on the stability of housekeeping genes and only reports relative expression. Digital PCR (dPCR) directly quantifies mRNA copy number and is more accurate than quantitative PCR. We(More)
The genetic deletion of catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) in mice produces a preeclampsia-like phenotype, with mice exhibiting hypertension, proteinuria, and histological changes, consistent with human pathological features. 2-Methoxyoestradiol, a metabolite of COMT, increases human trophoblast invasiveness in vitro under hypoxic conditions, providing(More)
Women undergoing elective caesarean section (CS) routinely have a group and save ordered as part of their preoperative assessment, whereas women with expected vaginal birth do not. Our aim was therefore to determine the rate of blood transfusion at elective CS compared with vaginal birth in a large Australian maternity hospital. A retrospective cohort study(More)