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Low birth weight resulting from intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is a risk factor for further development of metabolic diseases. The pig appears to reproduce nearly all of the phenotypic pathological consequences of human IUGR and is likely to be more relevant than rodents in studies of neonatal development. In the present work, we characterized the(More)
Sacral preganglionic neurons innervate the pelvic organs via a relay in the major pelvic ganglion. Pudendal motoneurons innervate striated muscles and sphincters of the lower urinary, genital and digestive tracts. The activity of these spinal neurons is regulated by sensory afferents of visceral and somatic origins. Glutamate is released by sensory(More)
We studied the effects of separate or co-applications by microiontophoresis of serotonin (5-HT) and substance P(4-11) onto brainstem respiratory neurons in anesthetized or decerebrate cats. 5-HT either produced an excitation (36%, n = 10) or an inhibition (43%, n = 12) or had no effect (21%, n = 6). SP(4-11) had predominantly an excitatory effect (84%, n =(More)
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