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1. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that goal-directed pointing movements, executed at normal speed to a small visual target, but without vision of the movement, do not rely on preprogrammed commands (open-loop process); by contrast these responses are under the control of a feedback loop, which compares the ongoing response and the goal (or its(More)
The capability of reprogramming movement responses following changes in the visual goal has been studied through the double-step paradigm. These studies have shown that: (a) continuous internal feedback-loops correct unconsciously the dynamic errors throughout the movement; (b) proprioceptive information and/or the efference copy have a privileged status(More)
The performances of a deafferented patient and five control subjects have been studied during a self-driven passing task in which one hand has to grasp an object transported by the other hand and in a unimanual reach-to-grasp task. The kinematics of the reach and grasp components and the scaling of the grip aperture recorded for the self-driven passing task(More)
In daily living, we continuously interact with our environment. This environment is rarely stable and living beings show remarkable adaptive capacities. When we reach for an object, it is necessary to localize the position of this object with respect to our own body before programming an adequate arm movement. If the target remains stable, the programmed(More)
Human subjects performed, from a standing position, rapid hand pointings to visual targets located within or beyond the prehension space. To examine the interaction between posture and the goal-directed movement we introduced a visual double-step perturbation requiring a reprogramming of the hand movement. Trials directed towards the same spatial goal but(More)
A green approach for the synthesis of a set of ten 4-aryl substituted-5-alcoxy carbonyl-6-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridones using Meldrum's acid has been devised, the absence of solvent and the activation with infrared irradiation in addition to a multicomponent protocol are the main reaction conditions. The transformations proceeded with moderated yields(More)
The sense of equilibrium aggregates several interacting cues. On vestibular areflexic patients, vision plays a major role. We developed an immersive therapeutic platform, based on 3D opto-kinetic stimulation that enables to tune the difficulty of the balance task by managing the type of optic flow and its speed. The balance adjustments are recorded by a(More)
Here we describe the efficient synthesis of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-6-chloro-5-formyl-2-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylates and 4-arylsubstituted-4,7-dihydro-furo[3,4-b]pyridine-2,5(1H,3H)-diones via microwave-accelerated reaction of alkyl 4-arylsubstituted-2-methyl-6-oxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-3-pyridinecarboxylates with the appropriate reagents. This(More)
Following the paper publication of practice guidelines for the management of febrile patients returning from the tropics, we constructed a consultation website that comprises a decision chart and specific diagnostic features providing medical diagnostic assistance to primary care physicians. We then integrated a research component to evaluate the(More)