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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients represent a powerful tool for biomedical research and may provide a source for replacement therapies. However, the use of viruses encoding the reprogramming factors represents a major limitation of the current technology since even low vector expression may alter the(More)
The long-term goal of nuclear transfer or alternative reprogramming approaches is to create patient-specific donor cells for transplantation therapy, avoiding immunorejection, a major complication in current transplantation medicine. It was recently shown that the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc induce pluripotency in mouse(More)
Although implantation of fetal dopamine (DA) neurons can reduce parkinsonism in patients, current methods are rudimentary, and a reliable donor cell source is lacking. We show that transplanting low doses of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into the rat striatum results in a proliferation of ES cells into fully differentiated DA neurons. ES(More)
Recent advances in deriving induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from patients offer new possibilities for biomedical research and clinical applications, as these cells could be used for autologous transplantation. We differentiated iPS cells from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) into dopaminergic (DA) neurons and show that these DA neurons can be(More)
The metabolic activation resulting from direct dopaminergic stimulation can be detected using auto-radiography, positron emission tomography (PET) or, potentially, fMRI techniques. To establish the validity of the latter possibility, we have performed a number of experiments. We measured the regional selectivity of two different dopaminergic ligands: the(More)
We report the first post-mortem analysis of two patients with Parkinson's disease who received fetal midbrain transplants as a cell suspension in the striatum, and in one case also in the substantia nigra. These patients had a favourable clinical evolution and positive 18F-fluorodopa PET scans and did not develop motor complications. The surviving(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently discovered small non-coding transcripts with a broad spectrum of functions described mostly in invertebrates. As post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, miRNAs trigger target mRNA degradation or translational repression. Although hundreds of miRNAs have been cloned from a variety of mammalian tissues and cells and(More)
Neural cells differentiated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) exhibit broad cellular heterogeneity with respect to developmental stage and lineage specification. Here, we describe standard conditions for the use and discovery of markers for analysis and cell selection of hESC undergoing neuronal differentiation. To generate better-defined cell(More)
Selective degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and thus an in-depth understanding of molecular pathways underlying mDA development will be crucial for optimal bioassays and cell replacement therapy for PD. In this study, we identified a novel Wnt1-Lmx1a autoregulatory loop during mDA(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder caused by genetic and environmental factors that results in degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway in the brain. We analyzed neural cells generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from PD patients and presymptomatic individuals carrying mutations in the PINK1(More)