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BACKGROUND Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may be more durable than the pulsatile-flow devices. METHODS In this randomized trial, we enrolled patients(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies suggest that the failing heart reactivates fetal genes and reverts to a fetal pattern of energy substrate metabolism. We tested this hypothesis by examining metabolic gene expression profiles in the fetal, nonfailing, and failing human heart. METHODS AND RESULTS Human left ventricular tissue (apex) was obtained from 9 fetal, 10(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial recovery after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support has been reported. The LVAD Working Group Recovery Study was a prospective multicenter trial to assess the incidence of myocardial recovery in patients bridged to cardiac transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS After LVAD implantation, patients were evaluated with the use of(More)
BACKGROUND Autophagy is a molecular process that breaks down damaged cellular organelles and yields amino acids for de novo protein synthesis or energy provision. Mechanical unloading with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) decreases the energy demand of the failing human heart. We tested the hypothesis that LVAD support reverses activation of(More)
BACKGROUND An increasing number of observations in patients with end-stage heart failure suggest that chronic ventricular unloading by mechanical circulatory support may lead to recovery of cardiac function. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine capable of producing pulmonary edema, dilated cardiomyopathy, and death.(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in energy substrate metabolism are first responders to hemodynamic stress in the heart. We have previously shown that hexose-6-phosphate levels regulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in response to insulin. We now tested the hypothesis that inotropic stimulation and increased afterload also regulate mTOR activation via(More)
BACKGROUND Heart failure is a major public-health concern. Quality and duration of life on maximum medical therapy are poor. The availability of donor hearts is severely limited, therefore an alternative approach is necessary. We have explored the use of a new type of left-ventricular assist device intended as a long-term solution to end-stage heart(More)
BACKGROUND A lifetime mechanical solution for advanced heart failure must be reliable, with a low risk of life-threatening complications. After extensive laboratory testing, we began clinical trials with an axial flow pump for long-term treatment of New York Heart Association class IV, transplant-ineligible patients. METHODS AND RESULTS The Jarvik 2000 is(More)
BACKGROUND Although transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) has provided symptomatic relief of angina over the short term, the long-term efficacy of the procedure is unknown. Angina symptoms as assessed independently by angina class and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) were prospectively collected up to 7 years after TMR. METHODS Seventy-eight(More)