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Menthol, a natural product of the peppermint plant Mentha x piperita (Lamiaceae), is a monoterpene which is widely used as a natural product in cosmetics, a flavoring agent, and as an intermediate in the production of other compounds. Various extracts from peppermint contain menthol as a major active constituent and have been used for centuries as(More)
Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in(More)
Chronic stress is a contributing risk factor for the development of psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depression disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of the standardized St. John's wort extract (STW3-VI; SJW) in a chronic restraint stress model. Markers of antioxidant capacity such as superoxide dismutase(More)
The purpose of this study was to characterize the putative anxiolytic-like activity of an ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Apocynum venetum (AV) using the elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Male C75BL/6 mice were either treated orally with the AV extract or the positive controls diazepam and buspirone, respectively, 1h before behavioral(More)
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) are a complex product prepared from green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. In the present study, the antidepressant effect of EGB was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. EGB significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and(More)
The purpose of this research was to assess the anxiolytic properties of a phytochemically characterized commercial extract from Passiflora incarnata (PI; Passifloraceae) in the elevated plus maze test in mice. Using an HPLC method, the flavonoids homoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin were identified as major compounds. Following oral(More)
Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer results in severe and chronic salivary gland dysfunction in most individuals. This results in significant side effects including xerostomia, dysphagia, and malnutrition which are linked to significant reductions in patients' quality of life. Currently there are few xerostomia treatment approaches that provide long-term(More)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder, affects from 3-20% of the US population, depending on sociocultural and comorbid factors. IBS is characterized by a symptom complex of abdominal pain and abnormal bowel habits that present as diarrhea or constipation, and general physical weakness in the absence of abnormal morphological,(More)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder with a range of symptoms that significantly affect quality of life for patients. The difficulty of differential diagnosis and its treatment may significantly delay initiation of optimal therapy. Hence, persons with IBS often self-treat symptoms with non-prescribed pharmacological regimens(More)
Mitragyna speciosa (Rubiaceae), commonly known as kratom, is a tropical tree with a long history of traditional use in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom has gained popularity for use as a recreational drug across the globe. Relatively new to the illicit market and used in a manner different from its traditional applications,(More)