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In this review, we propose that age-related changes in mammographic density and breast tissue involution are closely related phenomena, and consider their potential relevance to the aetiology of breast cancer. We propose that the reduction in mammographic density that occurs with increasing age, parity and menopause reflects the involution of breast tissue.(More)
It is well known that early-onset breast cancer may be due to an inherited predisposition. When evaluating women diagnosed with breast cancer under age 30, two important syndromes are typically considered: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Many women are offered genetic testing for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2(More)
IMPORTANCE Women with early-stage breast cancers are expected to have excellent survival rates. It is important to identify factors that predict diagnosis of early-stage breast cancers. OBJECTIVE To determine the proportion of breast cancers that were identified at an early stage (stage I) in different racial/ethnic groups and whether ethnic differences(More)
Among women with a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of breast cancer is high, but it may be modified by exogenous and endogenous factors. There is concern that exposure to carcinogens in cigarette smoke may increase the risk of cancer in mutation carriers. We conducted a matched case–control study of 2,538 cases of breast cancer among women with a BRCA1(More)
The association between sebaceous neoplasms of the skin and visceral cancers, known as Muir-Torre syndrome, is described in three patients, including one with an extensive history of cancer in his family. The first patient, a 54-year-old man, developed multiple sebaceous adenomas, epitheliomas, and carcinomas in association with a colonic carcinoma 6 years(More)
BACKGROUND Breast cancer prevention with tamoxifen in high-risk women is limited due to concerns of endometrial cancer and thromboembolism. We report the risk of endometrial cancer, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in women <50 years given tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled(More)
Breastfeeding has been inversely related to breast cancer risk in the general population. Clarifying the role of breastfeeding among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation may be helpful for risk assessment and for recommendations regarding prevention. We present an updated analysis of breastfeeding and risk of breast cancer using a large matched sample of(More)
Germ-line mutations in the TP53 gene are rare, but predispose women to a range of cancer types, including early-onset breast cancer. Breast cancers in women from families with the Li-Fraumeni syndrome often occur before age 30. The prevalence of deleterious TP53 mutations in unselected women with early-onset breast cancer is not precisely known. If(More)
Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this(More)
Despite benefits of screening mammography, many South Asian (SA) immigrant women in Canada remain under screened. We aimed to elicit their experiences and beliefs about barriers to mammography and possible solutions. SA immigrant women aged 50 years or over were eligible if they never had a mammogram or had one more than 3 years ago. We employed the(More)