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Pituitary growth hormone (GH), like several other protein hormones, shows an unusual episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change are imposed on long periods of very slow evolution (near-stasis). A marked period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of GH in primates or a primate ancestor, and gave rise to the(More)
In most mammals pituitary GH is encoded by a single gene with no close relatives. However, in man the GH gene has been shown to be one of a cluster of five closely related genes, four of which are expressed in the placenta. Rhesus monkey also expresses at least five closely related GH-like genes, although the genomic organisation of these has not been fully(More)
Sequential block copolymers consisting of tandem repetition of amino acids have been constructed and genetically produced based on the natural repeating structures of silk and elastin protein. Combinations of silklike and elastinlike amino acid sequence blocks in a high molecular weight protein polymer are used to confer properties similar to those observed(More)
In mammals the sequence of pituitary growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved, indicating a slow basal rate of molecular evolution. However, on two occasions, during the evolution of primates and that of cetartiodactyls, the rate of evolution has increased dramatically (25 to 50-fold) so that the sequences of human and ruminant GHs differ(More)
Pituitary prolactin, like growth hormone (GH) and several other protein hormones, shows an episodic pattern of molecular evolution in which sustained bursts of rapid change contrast with long periods of slow evolution. A period of rapid change occurred in the evolution of prolactin in primates, leading to marked sequence differences between human prolactin(More)
The sequence of growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of GH evolution apparently increased substantially. As a result the sequences of higher primate and ruminant GHs differ markedly from sequences of other mammalian GHs. In order(More)
The expression levels of coding sequences for pituitary growth hormone, introduced into Escherichia coli by genetic manipulation techniques, vary markedly according to the precise sequence introduced. In order to understand the basis of this variation more fully, we have studied the relationship between the level of expression in E. coli of a series of(More)
The GH gene cluster in marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, comprises eight GH-like genes and pseudogenes and appears to have arisen as a consequence of gene duplications occurring independently of those leading to the human GH gene cluster. We report here the complete sequence of the marmoset GH gene locus, including the intergenic regions and 5' and 3' flanking(More)
The gene encoding growth hormone (GH) has been cloned from a rabbit genomic library, and its sequence has been determined. The rabbit GH gene is similar to other mammalian GH, being comprised of five exons and four introns. As in rodents and artiodactyls, the rabbit GH occurs as a single gene, with no evidence for a cluster of GH-like genes, as is found in(More)