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This study presents a method to optimize the sampling design of environmental monitoring networks in a multi-objective setting. We optimize the permanent network of radiation monitoring stations in the Netherlands and parts of Germany as an example. The optimization method proposed combines minimization of prediction error under routine conditions with(More)
The assessment of noise sources for environmental purposes requires reliable methods for mapping. Numerical models are well adapted for sophisticated simulations and sensitivity analyses; however, real-time mapping of large frequency bands must be based on fast and acceptable computations and honor in situ measurements. In this paper, a real-time mapping(More)
Due to the rapidly increasing percentage of the population living in urban centres, there is a need to focus on the energy demand of these cities and the use of renewable energies instead of fossil fuels. In this paper, we develop a spatial model to determine the potential per parcel for using shallow geothermal energy, for space heating and hot water. The(More)
As environmental variables do not respect country borders or administrative responsibilities, there is an increased interest in merging observations from different sources. However, different countries and different administrative bodies might have different measurement devices and different traditions for measuring. These differences can be seen as(More)
Cities are responsible for about 70% of the overall primary energy consumption in Europe and play a major role in addressing carbon mitigation. In this respect, the housing sector has been identified as a key sector for its high energy savings potential achievable by implementing retrofit measures. However, a detailed characterization of the housing energy(More)
When data from different networks are merged for mapping purpose, biases may appear and lead to unrealistic results. In this paper we define a geostatistical model that generalizes the universal kriging model such that it can handle heterogeneous data. Multiple bias sources can be treated simultaneously through the notion of bias factors. The associated(More)
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