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BACKGROUND Since ephedra-containing dietary supplements were banned from the US market, manufacturers changed their formulations by eliminating ephedra and replacing with other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium, or bitter orange. Bitter orange contains, among other compounds, synephrine, a chemical that is chemically similar to ephedrine. Since(More)
When safety concerns forced the removal of ephedra from the market, other botanicals, including Citrus aurantium or bitter orange (BO) were used as replacements. A major component of the BO extract is synephrine, a chemical that is structurally similar to ephedrine. Because ephedrine has cardiovascular effects that may be exacerbated during physical(More)
Serum levels of cardiac troponins serve as biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, troponins are released into the serum only after damage to cardiac tissue has occurred. Here, we report development of a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced chronic cardiotoxicity to aid in the identification of predictive biomarkers of early events of cardiac tissue(More)
Amphetamine (AMPH) is used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, but it can produce neurotoxicity and adverse vascular effects at high doses. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) entails the unfolded protein response, which helps to avoid or minimize ER dysfunction. ERSR is often associated with toxicities resulting from(More)
An amphetamine (AMPH) regimen that does not produce a prominent blood-brain barrier breakdown was shown to significantly alter the expression of genes regulating vascular tone, immune function, and angiogenesis in vasculature associated with arachnoid and pia membranes of the forebrain. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats were given either saline injections(More)
A deterministic biologically based dose-response model for the thyroidal system in a near-term pregnant woman and the fetus was recently developed to evaluate quantitatively thyroid hormone perturbations. The current work focuses on conducting a quantitative global sensitivity analysis on this complex model to identify and characterize the sources and(More)
Determinants of amphetamine (AMPH)-induced neurotoxicity are poorly understood. The role of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and organ injury in AMPH-induced neurotoxicity was examined in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were give AMPH and became hyperthermic during the exposure. Environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) in the rat was compared to AMPH to(More)
The meninges (arachnoid and pial membranes) and associated vasculature (MAV) and choroid plexus are important in maintaining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) generation and flow. MAV vasculature was previously observed to be adversely affected by environmentally-induced hyperthermia (EIH) and more so by a neurotoxic amphetamine (AMPH) exposure. Herein, microarray(More)
The discrete data structure and large sequencing depth of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments can often generate outlier read counts in one or more RNA samples within a homogeneous group. Thus, how to identify and manage outlier observations in RNA-seq data is an emerging topic of interest. One of the main objectives in these research efforts is to develop(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has advanced the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies in genetic and genomic variation analysis. Due to the large dynamic range of expression levels, RNA-seq is more prone to detect transcripts with low expression. It is clear that genes with no mapped reads are not expressed; however, there is ongoing(More)