Nynke I. Kramer

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Information on toxicokinetics is critical for animal-free human risk assessment. Human external exposure must be translated into human tissue doses and compared with in vitro actual cell exposure associated to effects (in vitro-in vivo comparison). Data on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in humans (ADME) could be generated using in vitro(More)
Challenges to improve toxicological risk assessment to meet the demands of the EU chemical's legislation, REACH, and the EU 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive have accelerated the development of non-animal based methods. Unfortunately, uncertainties remain surrounding the power of alternative methods such as in vitro assays to predict in vivo(More)
The role that in vitro systems can play in toxicological risk assessment is determined by the appropriateness of the chosen methods, with respect to the way in which in vitro data can be extrapolated to the in vivo situation. This report presents the results of a workshop aimed at better defining the use of in vitro-derived biomarkers of toxicity (BoT) and(More)
The liver isoform of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been used classically as a serum biomarker for hepatic disease states such as hepatitis, steatosis, cirrhosis, drug-induced liver injury, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent studies have demonstrated a more general anti-inflammatory role for AP, as it is capable of dephosphorylating potentially(More)
Mandated efforts to assess chemicals for their potential to bioaccumulate within the environment are increasingly moving into the realm of data inadequacy. Consequently, there is an increasing reliance on predictive tools to complete regulatory requirements in a timely and cost-effective manner. The kinetic processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism,(More)
This paper details the derivation of a list of 60 reference chemicals for the development of alternatives to animal testing in ecotoxicology with a particular focus on fish. The chemicals were selected as a prerequisite to gather mechanistic information on the performance of alternative testing systems, namely vertebrate cell lines and fish embryos, in(More)
The aim of the EU FP7 Predict-IV project was to improve the predictivity of in vitro assays for unwanted effects of drugs after repeated dosing. The project assessed the added benefit of integrating long-lived in vitro organotypic cell systems with 'omics' technologies and in silico modelling, including systems biology and pharmacokinetic assessments.(More)
The zebrafish embryo toxicity test has been proposed as an alternative for the acute fish toxicity test, which is required by various regulations for environmental risk assessment of chemicals. We investigated the reliability of the embryo test by probing organic industrial chemicals with a wide range of physicochemical properties, toxicities, and modes of(More)
New EU legislation is providing an impetus for research aimed at replacing acute fish toxicity testing with in vitro alternatives. In line with such research, the objective of this study was to determine what factors influence the correlation between in vitro and fish toxicity data. Basal cytotoxicity (IC(50)) and acute toxicity data from fathead minnow(More)
Difficulties may arise when extrapolating in vitro derived toxicity data to in vivo toxicity data because of the high variability and occasional low sensitivity of in vitro results. Differences in the free concentration of a test compound between in vitro and in vivo systems and between different in vitro systems may in part explain this variability and(More)