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Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin (i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) is one of the most potent stimulants of the innate immune system, recognized by the TLR4.MD-2 complex. Direct binding to MD-2 of LPS and LPS analogues that act as TLR4 agonists or antagonists is well established, but the role of MD-2 and TLR4 in receptor activation is much less clear. We have(More)
LPS exerts potent immunostimulatory effects through activation of the TLR4/MD-2 receptor complex. The hexaacylated lipid A is an agonist of mouse (mTLR4) and human TLR4/MD-2, whereas the tetraacylated lipid IVa and paclitaxel activate only mTLR4/MD-2 and antagonize activation of the human receptor complex. Hydrophobic mutants of TLR4 or MD-2 were used to(More)
LPS is the primary ligand of Toll-like receptor 4, activating it through binding to its accessory protein MD-2. Murine but not human cells expressing MD-2/TLR4 are also activated by paclitaxel. Paclitaxel binds to human MD-2. The binding site of paclitaxel overlaps with the binding site of bis-ANS and LPS, which results in the ability of taxanes to inhibit(More)
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