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Several lines of experimental evidence have suggested that chemokine receptor CXCR4, a metastasis-promoting molecule, may play important roles in breast cancer bone metastasis. There is emerging evidence linking CXCR4 to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) as well as their regulator nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a key transcription factor, which is known(More)
A new mouse strain, Mus musculus Jyg, has been isolated from the wild in China. After several generations of inbreeding, Jyg mice have been found to develop mammary adenocarcinomas at a high incidence (70-80%). In order to understand the mechanism by which mammary tumors are induced in these mice, we analyzed 23 available mammary tumors and liver tissues(More)
Previous studies have shown that the development of mam mary alveolar lesions (MALs) precedes the emergence of overt mammary tumors in high-breast-cancer strains of mice, such as Rill, that are infected with exogenous murine mammary tumor virus. We cultured MAL-containing whole mammary glands from 7-month-old nulliparous Rill mice for 8 days (Days 0 to 8)(More)
Several groups of wild mice (Mus musculus) were captured from eight different locations in Asia and bred for several generations in a facility free of any laboratory strains of mice carrying mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The distribution of endogenous MMTV proviral sequences in the liver tissues of these mice was investigated by using Southern blot(More)
To understand the molecular mechanisms by which the endogenous murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) proviruses are expressed and produce late-occurring mammary tumors in C3Hf mice, we analyzed, by the use of restriction enzymes and the Southern transfer procedure, genomic DNA from normal organs of mammary tumor-bearing and tumor-free mice and from 12(More)
Sera of patients with breast cancer, of healthy women from the United States, East India, East Africa, and China, and of healthy women of American and Parsi families in which breast cancer occurred in several family members were assayed for levels of antibody reactive with the murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.(More)