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Reactivated memory undergoes a rebuilding process that depends on de novo protein synthesis. This suggests that retrieval is dynamic and serves to incorporate new information into preexisting memories. However, little is known about whether or not protein degradation is involved in the reorganization of retrieved memory. We found that postsynaptic proteins(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a critical role in modulating synaptic plasticity in the marine mollusc Aplysia and in the mammalian nervous system. In Aplysia sensory neurons, 5-HT can activate several signal cascades, including PKA and PKC, presumably via distinct types of G protein-coupled receptors. However, the molecular identities of these receptors have not(More)
The cAMP cascade and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are critical modulators of depression. Here we have tested whether the antidepressive effect of the cAMP cascade is mediated by VEGF in the adult hippocampus. We used a conditional genetic system in which the Aplysia octopamine receptor (Ap oa(1)), a G(s)-coupled receptor, is transgenically(More)
Galactosyltransferase (GT; UDPgalactose:beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.22) is a type II membrane-anchored protein composed of a short N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a signal/membrane-anchoring domain, and a stem region followed by a large catalytic domain including the C terminus. To identify the peptide segment and key(More)
The poly-N-acetyllactosamines on neutrophils and monocytes have been shown to serve as ligands for various selectins present on endothelial cells and platelets. We have previously shown that only a limited number of glycoproteins contain poly-N-acetyllactosamine and found that lysosomal membrane glycoproteins (lamps) are the major glycoproteins carrying(More)
HL-60 cells were induced to differentiate into granulocytic cells by dimethyl sulfoxide, and structures of Asn-linked oligosaccharides attached to lysosomal membrane glycoproteins (lamp-1 and lamp-2) were elucidated before and after differentiation. Lamp-1 and lamp-2 were immunoprecipitated from the cells after labeling with radioactive sugars, and(More)
Long-term facilitation in Aplysia is accompanied by the growth of new synaptic connections between the sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One of the initial steps leading to the growth of these synapses is the internalization, induced by 5-HT, of the transmembrane isoform of Aplysia cell-adhesion molecule (TM-apCAM) from the plasma(More)
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are known to play a key role in the compartmentalization of cAMP signaling; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying intracellular localization of different PDE isoforms are not understood. In this study, we have found that each of the supershort, short, and long forms of apPDE4 showed distinct localization in the cytoplasm,(More)
Consistent evidence from pharmacological and genetic studies shows that cAMP is a critical modulator of synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, the potential of the cAMP signaling pathway as a target for memory enhancement remains unclear because of contradictory findings from pharmacological and genetic approaches. To address these issues, we(More)