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OBJECTIVES Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra on transcranial sonography is used for diagnosing Parkinson disease (PD). Cutoff values for the substantia nigra echogenic area, defining substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, vary among ultrasound systems from different manufacturers. In this study we wanted to determine the cutoff criterion for a Toshiba(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with a clinically isolated demyelinating syndrome (CIS) are at risk of developing a second attack, thus converting into clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). Therefore, an accurate prognostic marker for that conversion might allow early treatment. Brain MRI and oligoclonal IgG band (OCGB) detection are the most frequent(More)
Demonstration of lesion dissemination in space (DIS) and time (DIT) is necessary for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). The McDonald criteria accepted two methods to demonstrate DIS. The fulfillment of at least three of four MRI Barkhof criteria (MRI-BC) or, alternatively, the finding of at least two MRI lesions(More)
Oligoclonal IgM bands (OCMB) against myelin lipids predict an aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) course. However, the clinical significance of OCMB without lipid specificity, present in other MS patients, remains unknown. We describe here a characterization of these antibodies and study their role in MS progression. Fifty-four MS patients showing(More)
BACKGROUND Herpetic (HE) and autoimmune (AE) encephalitis share clinical and radiological features. We compared both types of encephalitis with the aim of making a differential clinical-radiological pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS All cases with a clinical diagnosis of encephalitis who attended our hospital between 1999 and 2012 were reviewed. We selected(More)
In the economy class syndrome (ECS) the patient presents a deep venous thrombosis (DVT) with or without pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) during or after a long trip as a result of prolonged immobilization. Economy class stroke syndrome is an infrequent ECS variant in which ischemic stroke is associated with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Few cases have been(More)
AIM The purpose of this study was to analyse the cost effectiveness of the complementary tests in the diagnosis of reversible causes of dementia in an extra-hospital Neurology service. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients referred to the Neurology service from Primary Care with a diagnosis of dementia according to DSM-III-R criteria. The following routine(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Interferon beta and Glatiramer acetate are safe immunomodulatory treatments (IT) for multiple sclerosis (MS), but not always effective. New drugs are available, although they show more side-effects and unknown long-term safety profile. Anti-lipid oligoclonal IgM bands (OCMB) distinguish MS patients with early aggressive course. We(More)
INTRODUCTION Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes (NPS) are usually found in association with bronchogenic and gynecological tumors. Any part of the central or peripheral nervous system may be involved, and the clinical presentation may therefore take any of a large number of forms. Intestinal tumors rarely lead to NPS. We present the case of a patient(More)
OBJECTIVES Neurological problems are reported to be common in air travellers. The authors aimed to study neurological problems which might be associated with air traffic in a systematic way. METHODS The authors analysed a prospective registry of all the patients referred from Madrid-Barajas International Airport to the emergency department of their(More)