Demonstration of lesion dissemination in space (DIS) and time (DIT) is necessary for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). The McDonald criteria accepted two methods to demonstrate DIS. The fulfillment of at least three of four MRI Barkhof criteria (MRI-BC) or, alternatively, the finding of at least two MRI lesions… (More)
OBJECTIVES Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra on transcranial sonography is used for diagnosing Parkinson disease (PD). Cutoff values for the substantia nigra echogenic area, defining substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, vary among ultrasound systems from different manufacturers. In this study we wanted to determine the cutoff criterion for a Toshiba… (More)
We report a case of a woman who had two consecutive autoimmune neurological disorders, including an opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and limbic encephalitis (LE), with positive titers of GABAB receptor antibodies. The patient never developed seizures or had an underlying tumor after 4 years of follow-up.
OBJECTIVES Neurological problems are reported to be common in air travellers. The authors aimed to study neurological problems which might be associated with air traffic in a systematic way. METHODS The authors analysed a prospective registry of all the patients referred from Madrid-Barajas International Airport to the emergency department of their… (More)