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In this report we examine biochemical and genetic alterations in DNA topoisomerase II (topoisomerase II) in K562 cells selected for resistance in the presence of etoposide (VP-16). Previously, we have demonstrated that the 30-fold VP-16-resistant K/VP.5 cell line exhibits decreased stability of drug-induced topoisomerase II/DNA covalent complexes, requires(More)
Synthetic vaccines utilize viral signatures to trigger immune responses. Although the immune responses raised against the biochemical signatures of viruses are well characterized, the mechanism of how they affect immune response in the context of physical signatures is not well studied. In this work, we investigated the ability of zero- and one-dimensional(More)
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of(More)
Understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials remains largely limited to acute cellular response, i.e., short-term in vitro cell-death based assays, and analyses of tissue- and organ-level accumulation and clearance patterns in animal models, which have produced very little information about how these materials (from the toxicity point of view) interact with(More)
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