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Tracking attendance is a necessity in a variety of contexts in the developing world, encompassing health programs, schools, government offices, and a litany of other milieux. While electronic attendance tracking systems exist and perform their core function well, they are expensive, monolithic and offer little customizability. In this paper we describe a(More)
HIV-1 infection is characterized by loss of CD56(dim) CD16(+) NK cells and increased terminal differentiation on various lymphocyte subsets. We identified a decrease of CD57(-) and CD57(dim) cells but not of CD57(bright) cells on CD56(dim) CD16(+) NK cells in chronic HIV infection. Increasing CD57 expression was strongly associated with increasing(More)
UNLABELLED Natural killer (NK) cells are effector and regulatory innate immune cells and play a critical role in the first line of defense against various viral infections. Although previous reports have indicated the vital contributions of NK cells to HIV-1 immune control, nongenetic NK cell parameters directly associated with slower disease progression(More)
Several cytokines and chemokines including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) are induced in HIV-1 infection. However, the impact of HIV-1 viremia on CCL2 regulation is largely unknown. We utilized a DNA oligonucleotide microarray covering 110 inflammatory genes. Five genes were induced by at least 2-fold in PBMCs of HIV-1 viremic (>100,000 RNA copies(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the first line of defense against microorganisms. Upon host infection, PMNs phagocytose invading pathogens with subsequent killing by oxidative or nonoxidative mechanisms. NK cells are known to have immunoregulatory effects on T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and(More)
The discovery of a person's personally important places involves obtaining the physical locations for a person's places that matter to his daily life and routines. This problem is driven by the requirements from emerging location-aware applications, which allow a user to pose queries awl obtain, information in reference, to places, e.g., ''home", ''work" or(More)
HIV Vpr is known for its immunomodulatory capacities including its impairment of NK cell functions. However, the role of pDCs in this context remains elusive. We show that synthetic Vpr substantially inhibits type I IFN production by pDCs without inducing apoptosis in pDCs. Furthermore, we found that exogenous Vpr compromises subsequent pDC/NK interplay as(More)
OBJECTIVE Chronic HIV infection has been associated with activation and increased turnover of natural killer (NK) cells as well as with disturbed homeostasis of the NK cell compartment, including loss of CD56(+) NK cells and accumulation of dysfunctional CD56(-)/CD16(+) NK cells. We performed a comprehensive phenotypical and functional characterization of(More)
NK cells are pivotal sentinels of the innate immune system and distinct subpopulations in peripheral blood have been described. A number of studies addressed HIV-induced alterations of NK cell phenotype and functionality mainly focusing on CD56(dim)CD16⁺ and CD56⁻CD16⁺ NK cells. However, the impact of HIV-infection on CD56(bright) NK cells is less well(More)
Monocytes are known to engage in reciprocal crosstalk with NK cells but their influence on NK-cell-associated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is not well understood. We demonstrate that in humans FcγRIII (CD16)-dependent ADCC by NK cells is considerably enhanced by monocytes, and that this effect is regulated by FcγRII (CD32) crosslinking in(More)