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INTRODUCTION The expression of additional genes, other than oestrogen receptor (ER), may be important to the hormone-responsive phenotype of breast cancer. Microarray analyses have revealed that forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) and GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3) are expressed in close association with ERalpha, both encoding for transcription factors with a(More)
BACKGROUND Although salt intake is considered a probable risk factor for gastric cancer, relevant studies have provided heterogeneous results, and the magnitude of the association has not been accurately quantified. METHODS To quantify gastric cancer risk in relation to dietary salt exposure according to Helicobacter pylori infection status and virulence,(More)
Several studies conducted worldwide report an inverse association between caffeine/coffee consumption and the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). However, heterogeneity and conflicting results between studies preclude a correct estimation of the strength of this association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published(More)
INTRODUCTION Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), improving motor symptoms, fluctuations and quality of life. However, adverse psychiatric outcomes have been reported, albeit variably and in an unstandardized fashion. We aimed to summarize the published evidence on the outcomes of anxiety and depressive symptoms in(More)
We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Already a major cause of death and disability in high-income countries, the burden of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa is also expected to be high. However, specific stroke data are scarce from resource-poor countries. We studied the incidence, characteristics, and short-term consequences of hospitalizations for stroke in Maputo,(More)
BACKGROUND Unhealthy lifestyle choices tend to cluster, but controversy remains regarding relationships between smoking and dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare dietary intake and alcohol consumption, according to smoking status, in the Portuguese population. METHODS The study sample included all participants in the third Portuguese(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the dynamics of smoking at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of prevention and control measures. We aimed to describe trends in the prevalence of smoking in Portuguese adults by sex, age-group and birth cohort. METHODS PubMed was searched from inception up to 2011. Linear regression was used to(More)
BACKGROUND During the past 30 years, Portugal has been described as one of the countries with highest median blood pressure levels in Europe, but the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of hypertension, according to socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles. METHODS A population-based cohort of(More)
BACKGROUND Self-reported data are a common source of information about drug exposure. Modes of data collection differ considerably and the questionnaire's structure may affect prevalence estimates. We compared the recall of medication use evaluated by means of two questionnaires differing in structure and length. METHODS Drug utilization was assessed by(More)